Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Biology Instinct Essays - Animal Anatomy, Zoology, Entomology

Biology Instinct Essays - Animal Anatomy, Zoology, Entomology Biology Instinct subject = biology title = Biology Instinct Insects are neumerout invertebrate animals that belong in the Phylum Arthropoda and Class Insecta. The class Insecta is divided into 2 subclasses: Apterygota, or wingless insects, and Pterygota, or winged insects. Subclass Pterygota is futher divided on basis of metamorphosis. Insects that have undergone incomplete metamorphosis are the Exopterygota. Insects that undergo complete metamorphosis are the Endopterygota. Insects have an outer bilateral exoskeleton to which the muscles are attached to and provides protection for internal organs. The body is divided into 3 main parts which are the head, which include mouthparts, eyes, and antennae; thorax, which operate the jointed legs and /or wings; and abdomen, which has organs for digested food, reproducing, and getting rid of waste products. The major systems in insects are the circulatory, respiratory, nervous, muscular, digestive, and reproductive systems. In the circulatory system, blood is pumped by the heart in a tube to the aorta, the head, and to other organs then enters the ostia openings along the sides of the tube back to the heart. The respiratory systems carries O2 to cells and takes away CO2 from cells through branching out to call cells of body. The nervous system consists of a brain receiving information from eyes, antennae, and controls the whole body and 2 nerve cords containing ganglia fused together to control activities of the segment without the help of the brain. insect muscular system is made up of a few thousand samll but string muscles allowing the insect to carry objects heavier than it. The digestive system is basically a long tube where food enters the mouth to the crop where it is stored, gizzard where it is grinded, stomach where it is digested, then the undigested parts and wastes are moved to the intestine, colon then released at the anus. And in the reproductive system, a new individual is produced sexually when the female eggs produced in the ovaries united with male sperm produced in the testes. Both man and insect live almost everywhere, eat all kinds of food, and use all kinds of materials to build homes so they constantly live in conflict. Some insects seriously affect man's health and are parasitic on man and other animals. insects that feed on human or animal blood can carry disease in their salivary juices and spread the disease to other animals. Many insects irritate us without disturbing our health. Some bite and sting, and some people are allergic to them and some insects are injurious to our agricultural crops, food products, clothing, and wooden buildings. So far man has only partial success in defending against insects. But some insects species are beneficial to man. The honey bee, for example, supplies us with honey and the silkworm supplies us with silk. So bugs really aren't that bad.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

The Mohs Hardness of Coins

The Mohs Hardness of Coins The Mohs scale of mineral hardness consists of ten different minerals, but some other common objects can also be used: these include the fingernail (hardness 2.5), a steel knife or window glass (5.5), a steel file (6.5), and a penny. The penny has always been assigned a hardness of around 3. But we have conducted tests and found this is not true. The penny has changed in composition over the years since 1909 when the first Lincoln cent was issued. Its composition was specified as 95 percent copper and 5 percent tin plus zinc, an alloy classified as bronze. Except for the wartime year of 1943, pennies were bronze from 1909 until 1962. Pennies for the following 20 years were copper and zinc, technically brass rather than bronze. And in 1982 the proportions were reversed so that pennies today are 97.5 percent zinc surrounded by a thin, thin copper shell. Our test penny was from 1927, the original bronze formula. When we tested it with a new penny, neither scratched the other, so its clear that the hardness of pennies has not changed. Our penny would not scratch calcite unless we really bore down on it, but calcite (the standard for hardness 3) scratched the penny. In the interest of science, we tested a quarter, a dime and a nickel against the penny and against calcite. The quarter and dime were slightly softer than the penny and the nickel was slightly harder, but all were scratched by calcite. We did not experiment with silver coins, however, on a wild hunch, we tested an Indian head penny from 1908 and found that it scratched all the other objects and was not scratched in turn. So with that exception, all American coins do not scratch clear calcite without a lot of effort, whereas calcite scratches them fairly easily. This gives them a hardness less than 3, that is, 2.5, while an Indian head penny has a hardness greater than 3, that is, 3.5. The Indian head penny had the same nominal composition as the Lincoln penny, with zinc and tin combined making up 5 percent, but we suspect that the older penny had a little more tin. Maybe one penny isnt a fair test. Is there any reason to carry a penny around when the fingernail also is hardness 2.5? I think there are two: One, you may have soft nails; and two, you may prefer to scratch a penny rather than your nails. But the practical geologist should carry a nickel instead because in an emergency it can feed a parking meter.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Economics class video response paper Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Economics class video response paper - Assignment Example Many young people are usually preoccupied with other things, therefore finding time to maintain a wardrobe inventory might not be easy Another important lesson from the video is the idea of quality when purchasing clothing. It is important to invest in clothing that can be used for a long time. This is especially important for young people who might not have a stable source of income. Investing in quality clothing can prove to be economical in the long run. This requires one to look at the labels on the clothing in order to understand where they are made from and the material used. However, considering the spontaneous purchasing behavior of many youths, it is likely that many of them will not be able to look for these labels. The influence of advertising in shaping shopping choices is great, and this appears to be one of the significant forces influencing clothing choices among the youths. It can be argued that for as long as advertisements with phrases such as ‘Free’ continue to appear, they will influence shopping choices. In conclusion, the ideas presented in the video can be applied not only when s hopping for clothes but also other items. In this video, Moyers discusses the issue of capitalism and how it has affected the American economy. Richard Wolff, an economist, argues that capitalism has failed to delivered the ‘goods’ but instead ended delivering the ‘bads’, and this has led to the inequality witnessed in American today. Although president Obama has preached the idea of equal opportunity, this is not the case in America. Politicians are blamed for not having taken the plight of workers seriously, and this has greatly contributed to the inequality problem. I however believe that the blame is on everyone. When people get what they don’t deserve, they should not be absolved as Wolff does in this video. The problem here cannot be the system but the participants in it.

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

MGT599 MoD 2 SLP Assignment External Environment Analysis Essay

MGT599 MoD 2 SLP Assignment External Environment Analysis - Essay Example Furthermore, Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) regulations are also introduced by the Food Standard Agency in order to safeguard the food products through proper analysis and evaluation of biological, chemical and physical risk arising at the time of developing or manufacturing it (Food Standard Agency, 2011a). This law is introduced in order to protect the food product from procurement of appropriate raw materials, handling, manufacturing and ultimately selling or consumption, by target customers. Therefore, by procuring proper raw materials, high quality of ingredients might be offered to the customers, so as to reduce the intensity of obesity or any other harmful disorder. This regulation acts as an opportunity for the Kraft food group as it might prove effective in attracting a wide range of customers towards the brand. By improvement in the range of customers, the profitability and brand value of the Kraft food group may get amplified in the market among other rival players. Economic: The economic factors such as consumer spending, disposable income, inflation, unemployment etc might offer significant impact over the organization offering food products. The recent economic downturn of 2007-2008 created considerable changes over the food retail industry. This crisis also offers negative impact over the buying behavior of the customer, due to lack of disposable income. As the rate of unemployment increases; the rate of per capita income of the customers decreases significantly and so their buying behavior also gets hindered significantly (Mintel Group Ltd, 2009). Therefore, due to reduction of the buying behavior, the rate of total sale and profitability of the organization reduces that hinders its total revenue and market share. Thus, such type of economic impacts acts as a threat for the Kraft food group as it decreased its total sale and profitability in the

Sunday, November 17, 2019

First national bank case study Essay Example for Free

First national bank case study Essay A brand is the idea or image of a specific product or service that consumers connect with, by identifying the name, logo, slogan, or design of the company who owns the idea or image. Branding is when that idea or image is marketed so that it is recognizable by more and more people, and identified with a certain service or product when there are many other companies offering the same service or product. Advertising professionals work on branding not only to build brand recognition, but also to build good reputations and a set of standards to which the company should strive to maintain or surpass. Branding is an important part of Internet commerce, as branding allows companies to build their reputations as well as expand beyond the original product and service, and add to the revenue generated by the original brand. When working on branding, or building a brand, companies that are using web pages and search engine optimization have a few details to work out before being able to build a successful brand. Coordinating domain names and brand names are an important part of finding and keeping visitors and clients, as well as branding a new company. Coordination of a domain name and brand names lends identification to the idea or image of a specific product or service, which in turn lets visitors easily discovery the new brand. Branding is also a way to build an important company asset, which is a good reputation. Whether a company has no reputation, or a less than stellar reputation, branding can help change that. Branding can build an expectation about the company services or products, and can encourage the company to maintain that expectation, or exceed them, bringing better products and services to the market place. 1.2 Audi: commodity, products, company, brand? differentiates between a brand and a commodity by stating that â€Å"Branding is associated with added costs in the form of marketing, labelling, packaging and promotion. Commodities are ‘unbranded’ or undifferentiated products. distinguish the difference between a product and a brand, by saying, that a product â€Å"is anything that meets the functional [tangible] needs of customers†. In this context, one can say that a commodity represents basic, unbranded products such as Steel or other raw materials. However, products represent the next level, in this case it is automobiles. As a result, the brand level, which has intangible benefits, is represented by a particular brand in the automobile industry. However, Audi is a company brand which means, that the â€Å"name of the company identifies the brand†. This view is supported by Kapferer (2004, p.5) and Olins (2008, p.52) who both state that the corporate name is used at the same time as the name of the brand. 1.3.AUDI – major characteristics Audi is the jewel of the crown within Volkswagen group as well as the driving force of growth. Until the mid-1990s, Audi cars were still seen as poor mans Mercedes or BMWs. However, since the 1996 A4 and then the head-turning TT, Audi has established itself as a leader in style and quality. Its technology also shines in powerful turbocharged engines, quattro 4WD, aluminum spaceframe chassis and advanced transmissions. Now Audi has become a strong premium brand like BMW and Mercedes-Benz. The lifestyle of many people has changed in the sense that, there is a development towards an environmentally friendly way of life and Audi should take advantage of this. Even though Audi already takes necessary steps toward the protection of the environment, it should emphasise that it’s a hydrogen combustion Strategy is competitive to BMW’s engine for example. Audi should aim to become the economic and environmental leader in the worldwide automobile market. Audi should expand their brands on the worldwide market and emphasise their different price ranges and target markets in order to create customer loyalty and affection for the brand. Furthermore, Audi should be aware that there are still new customers entering the market, for example young people. By targeting this group, Audi has the chance to mature with this audience, which supports the establishment of customer loyalty. In this context, After Sales Service plays an important role in maintaining the customers and encouraging repeat purchase. Audi should aim to improve customer satisfaction and brand image through enhanced dealer networks and an upgraded service. Furthermore, Audi did considerably well in surviving the economic crisis, not just because of their high brand equity and their excellent sales in the last year. However, in expanding this equity in the future, financial backing could be established, which could help Audi to become number one worldwide, and help Audi perform better against the competition. This emotional relationship should be expanded by continuing to offer high quality cars to every segment of society, ranging from young drivers to old, loyal drivers.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Bovine Spongiform Encephalophathy Essay -- BSE Prion Mad Cow Disease

Bovine Spongiform Encephalophathy Abstract: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is caused by a prion, which is an infectious agent comprised solely of protein. The prion is a degenerate form of a normal cellular protein found in the brain and in nervous tissue. It targets the normal protein and causes the normal protein to change its shape. When enough of the prion is produced, the cell dies and symptoms of the disease are expressed. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), more commonly known as mad cow disease, is an unusual disease in regards to the fact that it is not caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or any other organism. Instead the disease is caused by prions, infectious agents simply composed of protein. Prions lack nucleic acid and are composed of an abnormal isoform of a normal cellular protein. What this means is that the prions and the cellular proteins have the same arrangements of the amino acids; however, the prion is folded differently from the cellular protein. "They are much like the toy "Transformers" that intrigued little kids in the 1980s. A sphynx could become a robot; a bug could become a warrior. Nothing was added; nothing subtracted."(Ruth Levy Guyer, Ph.D., 1) The tightly wound alpha helixes (figure 2) of the normal cellular proteins are unfolded and turn into beta sheets (figure 1). (Ruth Levy Guyer, Ph.D., 1) Figure 1 Figure 2 Another feature of the prion is its ability to remain stable in extreme conditions. Because prions do not have any DNA or RNA like other infectious agents, they are very hard to deal with. Prions are extremely resistant to conventional procedures to inactivate them including irradiation, boiling, dry heat, and chemicals such asformalin, betapropiolactone, and alcohols. S... a disease that runs in families and prevents people from sleeping, causes motor and emotional problems, and is eventually a killer. GSS was linked to two mutations in the prion gene in 1989. Prion fragments accumulate in the brain in structures called plaques. In Alzheimer's disease, similar plaques develop, but they are composed of fragments of a different protein. Works Cited â€Å"Prion† Wikipedia. 28 July 2006 . DeArmond, Stephen J., M.D., Ph.D., Safar, Jiri, M.D., Groth, Darlene, A.B., Prusiner, Stanley B., M.D. â€Å"Prions† Office of Health and Safety. 28 July 2006 . Guyer, Ruth Levy, Ph.D. â€Å"Prions: Puzzling Infectious Proteins† National Institutes of Health Office of Science. 28 July 2006 .

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Evolution Secret of the Haute Couture World

In some normal people mind, they might not know what the word â€Å"Haute Couture† means because they are expensive, luxurious and exclusive. Haute Couture is actually strictly defined as â€Å"high sewing†, haute couture has evolved from the days when it was invented by the Chambre Syndicale de la Confection et de la couture pour Dames et fillettes which means trade-union room of clothes industry and the seam for ladies and young girls in 1868. (Deborah Bee, Couture in the 21th century, 2010:p7). It is about the tailoring- the creation of exclusive, handmade garments, after a series of fittings, to the highest possible standard. In the following parts, it is going to show the secrets, history of the Haute Couture world, the contemporary industry running operation secrets and the future prediction of this niche luxury market by research, interviews from the people buying the dress as well as the designers themselves. History and the start of haute couture Charles Frederick Worth (1826-95),the first â€Å"King of Couture†. His styles dominates European aristocratic society in the mid-19th century. Worth was a Paris-based couturier that turned dressmaking into an art form. He designed spectacular gowns famed for their boldly patterned silks, lavish ornament and the innovative use of fabrics. They became status symbols and fashionable clients from across the world flocked to his salon. â€Å"We have Charles Worth to thank for starting it all†, said John Galliano 2010 The system of haute couture evolved that stuck to certain rigid rules,set in place by the chamber Syndicale de la Haute Couture Parisienne, founded in Paris in 1868. It became the routine for the head of a fashion house to select sketches from a bank of freelance designers. At a outure house’s seasonal presentation- Spring/Summer in Autumn/Winter in July which at least 50 outfits were shoen to an audience made up of customers and authorised buyers. The designs were then made up for the clients or sold as patterns, either in linen or paper. The visual look of the old couture This is the main structure of how the early couture looked like. The top part was called corsets and the bottom was called cage crinoline. Photos taken in V&A by myself With the bases underneath, spectacular garments can be produced. The left one was designed by Charles Worth in 1881, it was made by satin, embroidered with silk, chenille and beads, trimmed with machine lace. The right one was designed by Jean Patou (1880-1936) in 1932-4. It was make bu tulle embroidered with beads. *Photos taken in V&A by myself The Couture industry in the early age High fashion at the beginning of the 20th century was extravagant and luxurious, more and more designers were interested to step into the couture industry. The most significant couturiers well known until nowadays are Christian Dior, Chanel, Lanvin, YSL and Givenchy. Looking back to the 20s, the most shocking pre-WWI fashion statement came from Coco Chanel, with her sporty trend. Having established couture salons in Paris and the seaside resorts of Deauville and Biarritz, she created lightweight clothes with no linings, employed soft jersey for cardigans and sweaters. Chanel’s impact on couture cannot be underestimated as in 1920, she created a craze for wide-legged trousers and matelot tops. Christian Dior was doing the fitting with the client Talented couturier such as Christobal Balenciaga as the Spanish newspapers reported† women from all over the world cross frontiers to buy his creations during the war years. However, in 1947 the fashion world was presented with a revolution. The â€Å"new look† Dior’s created in his debut collection was starting point of a golden age of couture on the international fash ion scene. Tiny, corseted waists were accentuated with full, layered skirts and padding over the hips, while jackets and gowns were cut to draw attention to the decollete. Going onwards, Hubert de Givenchy opened up a couture house in 1952. What was so famous about Givenchy was he has a continue relationship with Audrey Hepburn and Givenchy turned her into a style icon and which made Givenchy determined many of the key trends in the 50s. After decades, the original designers kept passing out and made their first assistants such as Yves Mathieu-Saint-Laurent, Karl Lagerfeld, John Galliano and Alexander McQueen and more continue the legacy of Couture. The Haute Couture World of the 21st Century. While the couture market moves to the new century, there are more mixed modern and other century’s elements have been used in a couture collection. What pathetic is the whole industry has been minimized from 106 in 1946 to only 12 in the latest Haute Couture fashion show of Spring/Summer 2011. Although some of the large brands which used to produce very extraordinary such as Lanvin and YSL have stopped to participate in recent seasons’ couture shows, the rest of them and some new brands are doing a great job. Nowadays, there are actually a private couture club members which only have 200 members in the world as the price of the gowns are too expensive which only the seriously rich women can afford the price. According to the video â€Å"The secret world of haute couture†, it claims that couture is the most expensive clothes for women to buy and one of the buyer said that â€Å"Couture are very light nowadays like the second skin which fit on body very perfectly†. Until now, Paris is still the head quarter of Haute Couture because most of the famous couture brands such as Chanel, Jean Paul Gautier and Christian Dior are located in Paris. Regarding the absolutely expensive price of the couture, why women still willing to pay US$400,000 to buy a dress? The ex-directrice in 1971-2002 of YSL, Baroness Helene de Ludighauser said it is because of the quality, the good reason of purchasing the lavish old couture is because the hand works are extraordinary. How the members and buyer purchase the couture? As to make the club members feel more exiting and looking forward to the couture show, the theme of every brand is the â€Å"top secret†. â€Å"Focus religion type of movement to create couture† said by Ralph Rucci, an American designer. By managing the front row of the sits, the PR of the company mentioned that it is actually a hard decision but as they do not need to promote their couture so most priority would give to those club members because they are the one going to purchase the couture so they have to respect them. After each fashion show, media and those buyers and club members would rush to the backstage in order to find a chance to talk to the designer or knowing someone as they might actually be the friends of the designers. Haute Couture are not selling in open stores but they will be ready in the stores next day after the show. The important procedure of buying the couture is to make an appointment, then the store assistants would help you on introducing the garments and to choose which looks better in specific occasions. There is an interesting fact that if the customer body size can fit with the original garment, the customer will have a 30% off discount while others need to measure the size of the bodies to make some changes to look best on customers. There is another club rule of selling couture which is there are no price tag on the garments. Moreover, the designers themselves seldom really communicate with the customer as John Galliano said â€Å"Part of the mystery of couture is by not too connecting with their customer. † (The secret world of haute couture,2009, youtube) Although the Haute Couture is really expensive, wealthy women would think it is the investment of art for whole life. Contemporary Couturiers brands Analysis. From the latest season of Haute Couture which is the Spring/Summer 2011, there are 12 couturiers in total which is Alexis Mabille, Bouchra Jarra, Chanel, Christian Dior, Giogio Armani Prive, Givenchy, House of Worth, Iris van Herpen, Jean Paul Gaultier, Elie Saab, Stephan Rollan and Valentino (Vogue). Frankly speaking some of them might not be so wearable first of all may be because of the concepts, the designs, the styles or even the colours. Betsy Bloomingdale’s husband has been once asked her to buy anything she wants for Christian Dior just because Betsy is a big fan of Christian Dior. Of course there would be always some loyal fans such as Carroll Petrie, a Christian Dior couture fan, â€Å"I couldn’t believe what he had done with fabric, it is extraordinary! † Members would always have their favourite designers but through the research, you will find the most frequently appear in those couture club members’ wardrobe is the Chanel’s as their gowns are more wearable but decent. Both Chanel and Christian Dior are amazing on doing totally different styles of couture but both so popular, so there are some people describe Dior’s couture as Opera and Chanel’s couture as musical. Coco Chanel and Christian Dior were absolutely masters of couture. They captured both luxury and elegance in the public’s mind and left a strong legacy. People continue to refer to them even decades later. † From Maria Grazia Chiuri & Pier Paolo Piccioli, creative directors of Valentino. (Valentino, Couture in the 21th century, 2010:p131) Af ter mentioning the characteristics of Chanel, the opera like Christian Dior is actually have a reason of why their couture usually more exaggerated but really elegant and luxurious at the same time. We can not miss out the most creative John Galliano, the ex-creative director of Christian Dior, he had once worked in a theatre for years that is why in his earlier collections the garments are full of stories and the designs are kind of theatre like. So as the runway show, the models are telling stories which can enrich the aesthetic feeling of the gowns. John’s inspiration is inexhaustible and endless that his creativity brings him make the dreams come true. This is a very ordinary example from S/S 2011 collection, he turned Bell from the Beauty & the Beast onto the runway which interpreted in a more privilege and decent way. The next couture master we cannot miss out is Valentino. Valentino Garavani was a master couturier whose influence remains as strong as ever. The designers Maria Grazia Chiuri & Pier Paolo Piccioli agreed that â€Å"Fashion is about dreaming, and couture is where all the dreams come true. They believe that couture has to be one of a kind, that it has a sense of uniqueness and excess. †. And they think some designers limit couture to the red carpet, but they prefer to think that elegance should be accessible to everyone. A couturier who can interpret the dreams and longings of every woman is the one who will be successful in the long term. In the collection of S/S 2011, the whole collections seem to get more and more delicate and this time it was so so light. â€Å"All the ruffles and feminine wiles that this duo have made their own were fine floral prints, girlish butterflies at the neck, a spectrum of nude tones all as sheer as can be in breaths of organza, chiffon and the finest tulle† (Dolly Jones, show report,jan 2011, Vogue). Apart from the ordinary old famous couturiers, we have some couturiers enter the couture world later such as Elie Saab in the 70s. My job is to make women happy. More than financial gain, my impetus is to create beauty† byElie Saab. His style is for feminine couture dresses with brightly coloured silks , chiffons, pearl beading and embroidered lace. He thinks if a woman knows about couture and if she has an appreciation for couture, then than she won’t want to buy from a boutique because she can feel different when she wear couture. The collection in S/S 2011 was pretty a nd feminine as he displayed a lighter touch than in recent seasons and the dress were all the better for it. The colours and the fabrics choices are so beautifully matched and the embroidery was less heavy on lovely chiffon full length dress and this new focus suits him very much. (Dolly Jones, show report,jan 2011, Vogue). Conclusion In some normal people mind, they might not know what the word â€Å"Haute Couture† means because they are expensive, luxurious and exclusive. But the time has changed, there are many media that can let more people know about more about fashion and Haute Couture, they will fall in love with them once they watch any of the catwalk shows. Although the creation of exclusive, handmade garments, fittings are all in the highest possible standard and extremely expensive that only small part of women can afford them, â€Å"Haute Couture should be experimental, handcrafted, extensively researched and unique. In a sense it is where trends originate in their purest, most unrestrained form. Also, the couture houses help to keep traditional craftsmanship and tailoring alive. This is why it is so crucial that we must jealously protect it† from Maria Grazia Chiuri & Pier Paolo Piccioli. (Valentino, Couture in the 21th century, 2010:p132)

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Bristol Meyers Squibb

Employees Appraisal System is a method used by Human Resource Administrators for them to scale their employees regarding to their working relationship with other employees and work efficiency. This was done randomly and is accomplished by surveyed employee with all honesty and secrecy. In effect the HR Administrators will decide weather such employee be given a promotion, an increase of salary or none of those will be given on the basis of merits shown by Appraisal for such employee.Well as far as we can see, such appraisal system works effectively as far as Administrative aspect is concerned but in the Developmental aspect, appraisal systems may interpret datum which are created of personal biases because of its nature which is personally answered by an employee and as from that instance the person who is the subject of the said appraisal will have no chance to defend himself from any negative feedback and impression.So in this manner we can see the weakness of an appraisal system a s the results will come out in a written form as judgment and decision were already implemented over such employee. In eliminating an appraisal system will help the management to create or to formulate a new system which they could assess their employees in much interactive and creative manner, they could also exert more effort to know personally the people who works with them and n their own very eyes manager could personally assess their employees in a much personal sense with out the opinion of others that may somehow put such person into bad light.Only that, this could be a more time consuming work which could be lessen in a greater sense with the help of such appraisal system, it also may rate down the working efficiency of a company if appraisal system will not be use as there will be a numerous meetings which may interrupt the company’s official function.Lastly, it may deliver such deliberate arguments between such employees each in every meeting simply because of manà ¢â‚¬â„¢s natural differences in ideas which in the long run may result into a series of resignations because of such issues which may affect the company’s working environment. Reference: Grote, D. , & Grote, R. C. (2002). The Performance Appraisal Question and Answer Book: A Survival Guide for Managers. New York: AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Colonialism in Africa

Colonialism in Africa Free Online Research Papers Colonialism and its Direct Effect on the Rise of Nationalism in African Culture In America, today, the struggles of Africans over the course of history have gone widely unnoticed, with the exception of slavery in the America. Africa is a diverse group of people of many different backgrounds and languages. This is due to the colonization of Africa by Europeans, which was followed by many struggles to regain their independence as their own people. To fully understand, a person must take a closer look at colonialism and its direct effect on the rise of Nationalism in African culture. Colonialism is defined as a policy by which a nation maintains or extends its control over foreign dependencies, or in more realistic terms an exploitation by a stronger country of weaker one; the use of the weaker countrys resources to strengthen and enrich the stronger country ( A broad historical understanding of direct European colonial influence on the African continent dates back at least to the spread of the Roman Empire to North Africa. The more contemporary era of European colonialism, that was consecrated by the Berlin Conference of 1884-85, was preceded by a gradual process of European expansion into Africa over roughly four-hundred and fifty years (Schraeder 50-1). Beginning in 1434, Portuguese explorers under the leadership of Prince Henry the Navigator began sailing the West African coastline with intent of spreading Christianity and to enhance Portuguese political-military power. The steady advance of Portuguese explorers marked the beginning of what is commonly called in the West the age of exploration (the charting and mapping of lands previously unknown to European powers, before the ultimate imposition of colonial rule). One of the most devastating aspects of increasing foreign influence in Africa at the end of the fifteenth century was the global perception that slavery was a legitimate and necessary tool of political-military and economic expansion (51). Many slave trade routes appeared with the overwhelming acceptance of slavery by the world outside of Africa. The most prominent was the Atlantic slave trade, also called the European slave trade, which primarily shipped slaves to the Western Hemisphere (52). The Atlantic slave trade began during the fifteenth century and was dominated by the European powers. Slaves were sought as cheap labor to work the colonial plantations in the Americas that produced a variety of products that were exported to Europe. For Africans, the slave trade era sowed the seed of nationalism as Europeans divided and separated families, taking the most able people to work in the Western Hemisphere as slaves. Taking the most abled Africans slowed development in the rest of Africa, and the slaves were kept in the poorest conditions no animal, let alone human being, should suffer through. Often many Africans chose death, by jumping in the shark infested water, rather than continue to live their lives as a slave. While the slave trade sowed the seed of nationalism, the application of the nation-state system sprouted further growth. The origins of the nation-state system lie in the 1648 Treaty of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years’ War in Europe. The treaty marked the beginning of the nation-state system, in which sovereign political entities independent of any outside authorities exercised control over peoples residing in separate territories with officially marked boundaries. The imposition of the European nation-state system created a series of artificial states that, unlike their counterparts in Europe, did not evolve gradually according to the wishes of local African peoples. They instead were constructed by European authorities with little concern for local socioeconomic or political-military conditions. Another impact of colonialism was the division of African ethnic groups among numerous colonial states (62). The Somali people of the Horn of Africa are a notable example. Previously united by a common culture but lacking a centralized authority, this classically segmented political system was subjugated and divided among four imperial powers: Britain, France, Italy, and an independent Ethiopia. The problem with division of one people among many states is irredentism, or the political desire of nationalists to reunite their separated peoples in one unified nation-state (63). Another problem with the nation-state system is the opposite of the division of one people among many states. A third impact of European colonialism was the incorporation of previously separate and highly diverse African peoples in one colonial state. Britain’s creation of Nigeria illustrates this colonial practice and its consequences. Nigeria is composed of over two-hundred and fifty different ethnic groups. Only three of those ethnic groups comprises roughly sixty-six percent of the total population and primarily reside in three different areas of Nigeria (64). There are many problems associated with the collection of diverse groups that were never under the same rule until the arrival of colonialism and the nation-state system. It leads to language barriers that will slow the development of the nation-state as a whole. It causes clashes between political cultures. For example, Britain chooses a specific ethnic group residing in Nigeria to be in power. This leads to feuding among the rest of the tribes and ethnic groups because they all believe they should be the elites. The biggest impact that the nation-state system had among the African people was its division of families and friends, which is a vital in every Africans life. The nation-state system imposed boundaries right in the middle of villages, dividing the people among different countries that will have rule over them such as Britain and France. Each country kept strict control of who enters and leaves, making it hard for families and friends to stay in touch, often leading to a total loss of touch with a person’s family. Europeans often imposed their political, judicial, and police systems that were foreign to all Africans, and made them change their social structure to fit the Europeans. Instead of relying on a chief, Privy Council, council of elders, or village assembly, which is what Africans were working with at the time, they had to change their ways of life for the Europeans or face the consequences. Colonialism also imposed a system of a direct export economy. Europeans stripped the lands of Africa for their own benefit and left locals with very little to spare. The hardships that the Europeans imposed developed a sense of identity and pride throughout Africa. Nationalism is defined as a sense of collective identity in which a people perceives itself as different than (and often superior to) other peoples. Nationalism also implies the existence of a variety of shared characteristics, most notably a common language and culture, but also race and religion. The emergence of European â€Å"nations† (or cohesive group identities) generally preceded and contributed to the creation of European â€Å"states†. The result was the creation of viable nation-states that enjoyed the legitimacy of their peoples. This process was reversed in Africa. In most cases, the colonial state was created before any sense of nation existed (81). The idea of freedom, the underdevelopment of Africa, and the development of the concept of Pan-Africanism (feelings of unity) were the reasons why the seed of nationalism that was sowed and sprouted began to fully grow. Adding to the fire was the constant treatment of Africans by Europeans as inferiors, the development on African national unions, rise of Islamic movements, and the rise of the educated class. America also had a direct effect on African nationalism along with other countries that created examples for Africans to follow. In the Atlantic Charter of 1941, the agreement by Roosevelt and Churchill, promised that Africans could choose independence and self-governance. The development of aid and nationalism in Asia also encouraged Africans (in 1947 India took its independence from Britain). Also, the founding of the UN in 1945 increased the hope of all Africans for complete independence. A unique aspect of African nationalism was its inherently anti-colonial character. African nationalist movements were sharply divided on political agendas, ideological orientation, and economic programs. Regardless of their differences, however, the leaders of these movements did agree on one point: the necessity and desirability of independence from foreign control. That desire became a reality for the African leaders and people, but not all at once. There are four major waves of independence in the history of Africa (82). The first wave of independence was marked by peaceful transitions and took place during the 1950s. The wave was led by the heavily Arab-influenced North African countries. Three countries outside North Africa also obtained independence during this period followed by the former French colony of Guinea in 1958. The second wave of independence took place during the 1960s, when more than thirty African countries achieved independence. Most of these countries were former British and French colonies. All three Belgian colonies also acquired independence during this period and were joined by the Republic of Somalia. Aside from some noteworthy exceptions, most notably France’s unsuccessful attempt to defeat a pro-independence guerrilla insurgency in Algeria and the emergence of the Mau Mau guerilla insurgency in Kenya, the decolonization process of the 1960s was also largely peaceful. The departing colonial powers had already accepted the inevitability of decolonization. Questions simply remained as to when and under what conditions (83). The third wave of independence began in 1974. A military coup d’etat in Portugal, led by junior military officers, resulted in a declaration that the Portuguese government intended to grant immediate independence to the colonies in Africa. Coup plotters sought to end their stay because of poorly trained and unmotivated Portuguese military forces that repeatedly fought against highly motivated and increasingly adept African guerilla insurgencies. The violent path to independence in the former Portuguese colonies was further complicated in 1975, when Angolan guerrilla groups clashed in what would become an extended civil war over who would lead an independent Angola. The former French colonies of Comoros, Seychelles, and Djibouti, however, achieved independence under largely peaceful terms. The fourth wave of independence emerged during the 1980s. This wave was directed against the minority white-ruled regimes in Southern Africa. Since 1948, South Africa was controlled by the descendants of white settlers known as Afrikaners. This minority elite established a highly racist system in which blacks and other minorities (roughly eighty-five percent of the population) were denied political rights. The minority white-ruled regimes of Southern Africa were confronted by guerrilla organizations that enjoyed regional and international support. Military struggles were suspended after the white minority regimes agreed to negotiate transitions to black majority rule. Nelson Mandela’s emergence in 1994 as the first democratically elected leader of South Africa signaled the end of the decolonization process and the transition to the contemporary independence era. Through colonialism, which led to slavery and the application of the nation-state system, Africans developed a sense of Nationalism that sparked their movements toward independence. It is through their own will to be their own people that they achieved their current state of independence. Research Papers on Colonialism in AfricaBringing Democracy to AfricaAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 Europe19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraQuebec and CanadaPETSTEL analysis of IndiaDefinition of Export QuotasComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoHip-Hop is ArtAppeasement Policy Towards the Outbreak of World War 2Relationship between Media Coverage and Social and

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Word Choice Principle vs. Principal - Writing Tips from Proofed

Word Choice Principle vs. Principal - Writing Tips from Proofed Word Choice: Principle vs. Principal â€Å"Principle† and â€Å"principal† sound and look very much alike. In addition, neither word is very common in everyday language, so it can be hard to remember what each term means. However, there is an important difference between these words. Don’t worry, though! You can follow our advice on how to use â€Å"principle† and â€Å"principal† correctly to make sure your work is error free. Principle (A Rule or Guiding Idea) â€Å"Principle† is always a noun (i.e., a naming word). Typically, it refers to an idea or rule that explains or controls how something happens. For example: Time travel would violate the principles of modern science. Democracy works on the principle of one person, one vote. The first sentence above refers to established scientific laws. The second refers to a guiding idea. Youll find principles for almost everything. A similar use of â€Å"principle† is to refer to a â€Å"moral standard,† such as if we say: I am kind to animals as a matter of principle. In addition, sometimes â€Å"principle† is used in contrast to practice. For example: I’m in favor of the new law in principle, but it could cause problems. Here, saying â€Å"in principle† means â€Å"in theory† or â€Å"as an idea,† but this is contrasted with concerns about how the â€Å"principle† will be applied in real life. Principal (First or Most Important) â€Å"Principal† is most often an adjective (i.e., a word that describes a noun). When used like this, it means â€Å"first in order of importance.† For example: Petroleum is the principal export of Saudi Arabia. My principal reason for taking the job was the salary. In these cases, â€Å"principal† works as a synonym for â€Å"main† or â€Å"most important.† This word can also be a noun, though. When used like this, it usually refers to the person in charge of a school: The new principal addressed the students at assembly. The noun form of â€Å"principal† also has some less common meanings. As a legal term, for example, it refers to the person directly responsible for a crime. You won’t need to know technical definitions like this to use this term on a day-to-day basis, but it is worth looking out for unusual usages! Principle or Principal? With these terms, if you are looking for an adjective, it will always be â€Å"principal† that you need. But telling the noun forms of these words apart can be tricky! Our advice is to remember that a â€Å"principal† is usually a person, whereas a â€Å"principle† is a rule or belief. You should therefore be able to work out the correct term from the context. Principle = Rule or guiding idea (noun) Principal = First/most important (adjective) or head of a school (noun)

Sunday, November 3, 2019

SPORT Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

SPORT - Essay Example Scoring high grades is the widely known measure of a student’s success, while there are several activities in school that scholars engage in (Ripley, 2014). Institutions of higher learning forever compete to produce excellent students that are marketable in the job industry. Sport is among the extra curriculum activities that scholar take part while in school besides academics, even other children are enrolled in gaming clubs away from school. Research documents that sport is essential as a form of relaxation to a scholar, a way from books or as a physical exercise. Sports on the other hand, offer a platform for continuous learning and overall growth. Sports do not interfere with a student academic performance and thus parents should be enforcers in their children choice of extra curriculum activities? The main mission of an education center is to train scholars on various subjects such as Math, English among others. Moreover, most institutions of higher learning are equipped with facilities to promote the process of knowledge acquisition. Amanda Ripley suggests that, the world smartest countries support 100% learning activities only yet some students still perform poorly. Inclusion of a sport program has never caused harm to any student and their academic performance instead; games are best in breaking the monotony of the class-teaching set-up. The realization of the importance of extra curriculum activities by the school managers is necessary for scholars stand to reap benefits as well as the institution. Trophies and prizes won during sports competitions aren’t individualized by scholars instead displayed at the school’s reception bring pride, prestige and fame to the institution. Sponsoring sports in line with the school’s mission offers an ample environme nt for both academic and extra curriculum performance. Scholars are able to grow all round with valuable principles such teamwork, discipline and

Friday, November 1, 2019

Strategic Management Analysis The Thomson Travel Group PLC Essay

Strategic Management Analysis The Thomson Travel Group PLC - Essay Example The company in 2002 changed its formal name from Thomson Holidays Limited to TUI UK, Ltd. Presently it is operating as Thomson Holidays, a brand of its parent company TUI Travel Plc. delivering their services to vacation travel retailers. It is primarily a UK based group serving both travel and tourism packages in the national as well as international markets. The group operates its air-line services in European region, Australasia, Asia, the Middle East, and America, employing nearly 18000 people at present. (Bloomberg L.P., 2010). Apart from airlines the group also owns a number of cruises named as Thomson Cruises, offering lower cost Europe tour through water. Additionally, the group also feature many holiday resorts to serve their customers a cheaper and comfortable holiday experiences. With a difference to the prospects of mere holiday packages, the group has also destined its path in publishing several magazines and brochures defining the types of packages offered and there pricing thereof giving its advertisement sector an effective touch. Some of the published magazines are, Thomson Destinations and Summer Sun, Thomson Destinations Florida among others (My Holiday Co. 2010).