Saturday, August 31, 2019

“But is it Art?” By Cynthia Freeland

At the present, the contemporary society has offered many and different forms and characteristics of exemplification and abstraction of the humanistic aspect of the society in the form of what is generally known as art. The said manifestations of the artistic nature of the people is viewed by many to be of no value as they do not coincide or agree with the principal guidelines of artistic consideration. On the other hand, other groups in the society claim the other way around.This difference in the interpretation and view regarding the artistic value of the emotional and concrete manifestations of the abstracted values of the people produces conflict of opinions in the art aspect of the humanity. In this spectacle of social ambiguity that the book of Cynthia Freeland entitled â€Å"But is it Art† appeals most. The book by Freeland generally perceives the contemporary artistic manifestations to be examples of the modern artistic vision of the society as related with their new n orms and social values.By exemplifying and analyzing different art forms in the modern society, Freeland claims that the modern manifestations of the humanistic aspect of the society is still considerably within the principles of artwork and are all appreciable in their own aspects. By also considering the different changes and advancement in the social development, she also claims that principles of the old art forms has not yet excluded by the present society but instead it became more vivid and artistic with the expansion beyond the past boundaries.The book of Freeland considers different aspects of the present art form in relation to the dominant social values and cultures each discussed sufficiently and intrinsically in the book. By this analysis and with incorporation of different ideas from other art critic, Freeland has developed a concept in her book describing the present mediums and manifestations of the humanistic aspect of the present society to be within the classifica tion of art in their own definition of artistic representation and expression.

Friday, August 30, 2019

A study of the catfishing scheme of hile according to special agent steve kim Essay

A 29-year-old man from Michigan intended to kill a woman and her boyfriend from San Diego who got unwittingly involved in the man’s virtual love affair. The man, by the name of Hile, had gotten himself involved in a â€Å"catfishing scheme†. A â€Å"catfishing scheme† is â€Å"when a person uses social media to pretend to be someone their not, typically to engage in misleading online romances†. Hile was involved in an Internet-only relationship for two years. He exchanged explicit photos and romantic communications with someone who he believed was a woman. When Hile learned that the â€Å"women† he thought he was in a relationship was a man living in South Africa he â€Å"became enraged and vowed to find the man who deceived him and the women when images played a role in the deception†. According to Special Agent Steve Kim in the San Diego Division, â€Å"The woman, in this case, was a victim twice†. Kim explains â€Å"when the woman was 18 years old, she took revealing pictures of herself for personal use, never intending for them to be seen publicly. Those photos were later stolen from her online account, which she was aware of, but she had no idea what was being done with them†. Hile’s primary target for the revenge was the man from South Africa who actually dumped him. According to Special Agent Steve Kim South Africa was too far away and using a process she described as â€Å"circular logic† he went after the women instead. Even though the women had nothing to do with this internet-only relationship scam with the man from South Africa and Hile, he still believed she had some kind of responsibility just because she was used in the pictures. Hile was determined to learn the woman’s identity he cyberstalked her, conducted extensive online searches, and used hacking tools. Special Agent Steve Kim said â€Å"Eventually, he was able to hack into her e-mail account,†Ã‚  Hile got a hole of very detailed personal information on the women. He found not only information about the women but her live-in boyfriend and also their extended family and friends. After finding out her Address, telephone numbers and even information such as her favorite restaurant he purchased a bus ticket from Michigan to San Diego to kill the women. â€Å"Fortunately, Hile’s family sensed that he was planning something and alerted authorities, which eventually led to Hile’s detention in San Diego, about a mile from the woman’s residence.† When hill was arrested he not only had all of the information he collected about the women but also had duct tape, zip ties, and a to-do list which included things such as obtai ning a knife and chloroform. Special Agent Steve Kim said, â€Å"Had he gotten there, we are convinced he would have hurt or killed the victims†. â€Å"Hile was found guilty by a San Diego jury in August 2013.† This case influences my ethics because I feel that what this man did was wrong. Hile had no reason to attack the girl in the pictures, she was unknowingly involved with the internet-only romantic affair Hile was having. If Hile chooses to get involved in an internet-only romantic affair with someone he should have known the risks of doing so. I also feel that from a standpoint of him being arrested 5 years is not enough time in prison. â€Å"The maximum allowed by law for interstate stalking is five years in federal prison,† I think this man should have been charged with intent to kill. I know each state has its own cyber laws but is their not a law covering this type of situation? I could only find information on laws with intent to kill that involved a type of battery or assault paired with it. I could not find any laws specifically relating to someone who was cyber-stalking someone with an intent to kill them. I think this man should have had a different sentence due to the circumstances of this crime. My own computer security of ethics would be as follows. I would not use any knowledge I have learned to break into any computer systems. I would not use computer systems in any way that may harm people. I would not snoop around in another person’s files. I would not use someone’s computer or computer resources without authorization. I would also never release malicious software on to others computer systems. I think that having a code of ethics when using computers can be as simple as being considerate and respect for your fellow computer users.    References The FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) (2013, December 23).  Cyber Stalker – Cautionary Tale of Online Romance and Revenge. Retrieved  March  2, 2014, from Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia (2014, February 26).  Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved  March  3, 2014, from

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Hitler and Mussolini Essay

Benito Mussolini during his rule from 1922 to 1943 faced many domestic problems within Italy that he had to deal with. Mainly the internal problems had to do with economic policies and struggle, which Mussolini attempted to deal with through his autarky policy. He also had to deal with political problems, which were derived from the interference of the church. Finally Mussolini also had to contend with social problems such as unification, and increase of popularity. Through his rule Mussolini had to deal with economic, social and political problems, however he was to a great extent not successful in dealing with these problems. One of Mussolini’s greatest internal problems was his economic problem. Mussolini wanted to make Italy a great economy, one that could compete with the great economies of World War I such as Britain and France. In order to this Mussolini wanted an autarky, which was economic self-sufficiency in food and raw materials. He wanted Italy through autarky to become a powerful and large empire. In order to achieve this Mussolini instigated what historians such as MacDonald refer to as a ‘series of battles’. These battles were a struggle for the economy that Mussolini envisioned. A series of four battles were fought however only one can be regarded as a partial success while the other three were seen by most historians as failed attempts. The first battle was known as the Battle for Grain, which was to a great extent a failure. This battle started in 1925 because there was a poor harvest that year, and the grain for the most part was being imported. In order to become a self-sufficient economy Mussolini wanted Italy to be able to produce the grain on its own. By the 1930’s Italy was able to become a self-sufficient grain growing economy by controlling imports and increasing the production of cereal crops. However despite being able to achieve grain production, Italy as a whole suffered due to this battle. By encouraging the production of grain, farmers had to stop growing fruits and vegetables, which were cheaper to produce. Therefore exports of fruits and vegetables also decreased, which caused the economy to become weaker because revenue from exports decreased. Also due to an emphasis on making grain the use of sheep’s and cattle decreased, causing the decline of these animals. It also caused the country to go into debt since the government had to give subsidies to farmers and there were huge tariffs associated with the production of grain. Also the price of grain in Italy rose causing the price of bread to increase. This affected the working class and poor since the core of their diet was made up of bread. The masses of Italy suffered especially the poor and the farmers, although the industrialists did not suffer as much. Since grain production increased the demand for fertilizers and tractors increased, which increased the business of the industrialists. However the industrialists are a smaller proportion of the population of Italy than the masses, therefore to the most part the Battle for Grain was a failure. The second battle was the ‘Battle for Lira’ whose main aim was to reinstate the purchasing power of the currency. Sine Mussolini wanted a powerful Italy; he thought that the weak currency added to weakness of the economy. Therefore in 1926, Mussolini revalued the Lira so that one pound was 90 liras. This battle also proved to be a failure since the price of exports increased. Due to this unemployment increased and firms and industries were not able to sell their goods as efficiently. This also caused the aim to increase economic influence to decrease since it had a negative effect of exports and unemployment. The ‘Battle for Land’ was the third battle fought in order to increase economic power. This battle had mixed responses and could be seen as a success and failure. The Battle for Land attempted to control the migration to cities from the countryside’s, which helped control unemployment. The Battle for Land was a success because of the Pointe Marshe in 1935 which served as good propaganda, helped decrease unemployment and also allowed for the control of subsidies to farmers. Pointe Marshe provided small farms and also increased public work, which called for employment. However it was also known as a failure because small plots of land were inefficiently utilized for a lot of wheat production. Also it did not help decrease the poverty of poor people. The economic problems in Italy that Mussolini tried to deal with through autarky were mainly a failure due to the failures of the battles. Another internal problem that Mussolini had to deal with was political problems. Mussolini wanted to obtain totalitarianism, however in order to this Mussolini had to deal with the Roman Catholic Church. This to an extent was a success, however tension between the Church and the state was never completely eradicated. In order to make relations with the Church better Mussolini allowed religious studies in education and also allowed the crucifix to be displayed in courts and classrooms. Also in order to gain support from the Church Mussolini had his children baptized and also had a church wedding in 1925 in order too show that he believed in the Church. The Church also accepted Mussolini’s policy on abortions and contraception, in order to increase population. Mussolini also officially ended the tension by forming the Latern Pacts, which made the Vatican state independent, made Catholism the official religion of the state and also made education of cat holism mandatory in schools. This pact decreased tension between the church and Mussolini and allowed Mussolini to gain more power of the state. However despite the pact and decreased tension, conflict always remained between the Church and Mussolini’s state. Mussolini’s continued interference in catholic education in schools continued to be a problem between the church and the state and the Pope threatened to censure fascism. Another conflict between the state and the Church was relations with Nazi Germany in 1938, having to do with the views on anti-Semitism. The continued tension with the Church never allowed Mussolini to have full control over Italy, which added to his internal problems. The last internal problem that Italy had to deal with was social problems. Mussolini attempted to unify Italy and increase his popularity through propaganda since he did not have full control and poulatiry over the Italian people. Mussolini was most successful in dealing with social problems through L’inquadramento and the idea of a corporative state. L’inqadramento was an illusion that Mussolini created in order to unify Italy. Through this movement Mussolini increased their popularity and membership by providing support and financial aid during after the Depression from 1931 to 1937. â€Å"This recovery from the deep depression of the postwar was remarkable and greatly aided the Fascists in winning favor and in establishing power.†, was the view of historian Clough. They also increased employment by inflicting a forty-hour workweek and allowing family compensations. These helpful acts during the Depression helped Mussolini gain support from more people, and allowed him to control more of the state. Also schemes such as the Pointe Marshe helped increase employment, which also helped Mussolini, gain support. Mussolini used propaganda through a policy called Corporative state, which also helped him gain support. The Corporative state advertised a state where there was no class system and all labors worked together. It also strived to make working conditions better and sought to help all laborers when they were in trouble by allowing them to share their concerns with their employers’ representatives who then shared them with Mussolini.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Contrasting Views of Childhood Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Contrasting Views of Childhood - Essay Example Contrasting Views of Childhood The year 1800 appeared with Britain and the rest of Europe already poised for new adventures. Industrialization had set in and French revolution was lulled into an uneasy calm only a few months ago, with the adventurer Napoleon now at the helm of French affairs. It is foolish to presume that the revolution did not have far reaching affect over the rest of the world politics and ways of thinking. Started with stunningly creative thoughts it was a great struggle for coherent voice of mankind; but unfortunately went out of control by destroying the very best crop of intellectuals of the day and the bloodbath that accompanied it horrified the rest of Europe and the World. Monarchies were at the edge; political changes were sweeping across the continent, social adjustments were urgently called for and with the industrialization and improvements, discoveries in science and technology, economy of Europe was entirely at an unpredictable path. In Britain, Romantic Literature and Arts were loo ming large, admired for its tranquillity and serenity far removed from the disquieting turbulence of the political, economic and social scene. Thinkers declared that being a child in those violent years was a terrifying experience. For the first time in its history, Europeans were venturing into far off colonies, in search of adventure and wealth as sailors, soldiers and administrators. Mobility had become the keyword and noble class was realising that titles without achievements are after all, insufficient for personal glory and wealth. This brought out a dedicated and noble yield of leaders belonging to the educated class, coming mainly from the nobility. This also means that the priority of children's education and upbringing was altered immensely. Priorities of the coming generations have changed and people in Europe were hoping their children to adorn better positions than they themselves did. Lower class aspired their children to work in industries connected with new discoveries, innovations and technological developments, whereas the middleclass mainly wanted their children to join the all important navy, ruling the waves across the world, and the noble and affluent class wanted their children to be educated and fill up administrative posts at home and in the exciting lands of colonies, that were being accumulated in vengeful competition by the European powers. Simultaneously the middle and upper classes hoped their children to be brilliant artists, glorious soldiers, scientists, engineers, adventurists, discoverers, diplomats, leaders in many new spheres, economists, writers, generals, decision makers and to put it succinctly, a ttain places of importance, glory and

Operations Management course. Memo Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Operations Management course. Memo - Case Study Example Although CX Technologies has been able to maintain its position in the market, growth has plateaued and with the incoming recession, business is set to go down further. Bhole states that the company’s expansion into the Asian market recently and considering the positive outcomes of this expansion, the probability of succeeding into the automotive industry is high (7-8). According to observers, the automotive industry faces a bleak future, considering that many people are more apprehensive about rising gas prices, a factor that has led to lower vehicle purchases. The situation has been aggravated by the fact that the largest three manufactures have approached the government in search of caution against the recession. According to Bhole, possibilities for success are raised by the sheer size of the industry in the United States is a major motivating factor in this expansion (7). This allows for CX Technology to penetrate the market and offer competitively lower prices, since the company’s personnel are enough to provide the needed labor. With branches in Asia already, the company is in a good position to tap into the Chinese market and take advantage of the growing economy and demand for automobiles. This is a risky project because it puts the entire future of the company at stake. If the decision is made to follow up with the plan, then the company risks running bankrupt, especially considering the current recession. If the proposal into expand to the automotive industry is passed, then feasibility studies need to be undertaken as soon as possible. The company’s entire workforce is to be notified about the new enterprise, so as to be prepared to provide the necessary labor. In conclusion, every business needs to take a risk once in a while and test new opportunities; otherwise it risks stagnation and monotony. Venturing into the automotive industry seems like a worthwhile risk for CX Technology, in an effort to grow the company’s

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Obama care Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Obama care - Essay Example The Affordable Act does not provide people opportunity to get equal health care because it organizes insurance in levels based on the public condition. If a person is poor they will pay less for the insurance and get unqualified doctors compared to middle and high income earning people who pay more and get better health treatment. The Supreme Court even wrongfully supported the Act by making it mandatory for individuals to purchase healthcare insurance under 2010 Affordable Health Care Bill. Obama Care places huge pressure on young adults affecting their priority and health by forcing them to buy insurance when they do not have enough income to afford it. Obama Care is also harming businesses and this can also lead to worsening of the economic conditions of the USA. The Obama Care affects and destroys young adult’s priority. Healthy young adults are forced to buy insurance and this prevents them to save their income in order to secure their future. Due to this young adults may not be able to meet the expenses required to address any unexpected health condition in future. Obama Healthcare Act rather makes the young generation dependant on governmental health care programs. Elders in the United States gets more support from the government in shape of Medicare when it comes to their health condition because some cannot work and others do not have enough money to take care of themselves. Studies by the U.S department of health and human service reported that elder people represent the highest percentage of the Americans who signed for the Obama Care, while young adults represent the lowest percentage. Young adults strongly disagree with Obama Care because it forces them to buy health insurance even when they are healthy enough. Due to this t he money invested by young adults does not benefit them and rather benefits other populations such as the elderly who have signed for Obama Care. According to the

Monday, August 26, 2019

Role of Early Childhood Educator in prevention of Child Abuse Essay

Role of Early Childhood Educator in prevention of Child Abuse - Essay Example 1). Evidently, as the family is unreliable, educators in diverse settings serve as reinforced resources for children to rely on in preventing further abuse. Types and Signs of Abuse Abuse can take a number of form, and not just on physical side, but can be on emotional aspects, neglect, and sexual violations in children. Having close interaction with young children, educators in schools and caregiver institutions should be aware on observable illicit signs of abuse. Physical abuse is not hard to identify, as cruel manhandling may range from burned skin, bruised, and lacerated body parts. Wounds from physical abuse are different from accidental injuries, as the former can occur on soft tissue, like â€Å"cheeks, buttocks, and thigh† while the latter are frequently seen on body areas such as â€Å"knees, elbows, forearms, or brow.† Typically, the material used as physical punishment can be observed on injured areas. Yet, other types of abuse are difficult to detect. Negle ct is the absence of considerable efforts in meeting the children’s biological and emotional needs. There is chronic inattention to well being of children, where parents leave them to inadequately fend for themselves. In emotional abuse, parents resort to verbal attacks and rejection through lack of parental concern and interest--resulting to â€Å"developmental lags, psychosomatic symptoms ... (communication) disorders† (Crosson-Tower, 2003, p. 15, 19). Lastly, there is unacceptable sexual overture in sexual abuse. Extreme behavioral reactions vary; others withdraw from contact with others, while some become sexually aggressive--expressing the type of sexual abuse experienced through drawing or play-acting. Collectively, these are fundamental signs that confirm the type of abuse faced by children. Long Term Consequences Child abuse is a condition that can be carried towards adult life. Subconsciously, the type of abuse received influences the way abused children live. On the physical side, health consequences can irreversibly affect them. As affirmed by DiScala, Serge, Li, and Reece (2000), severe physical head injuries resulted to significant reduction in neurological-dependent activities. Several victims, then, suffered physical disabilities that interrupt physiological capacities in living. Psychologically, such events may lead to several psychiatric (personality and eating) disorders, depressive status, â€Å"posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and substance abuse† (MacMillan et al., 2001, p. 1878). The effects of abuse are more of maladaptive defense copings, where children’s life-esteem is extremely low and academic performance is negatively affected (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2008). As these are treated as abnormal conditions, society shuns them from social activities while insisting that they submit to treatment for such conditions. The society, as large, takes care of such events by funding welfare programs that assist abused children lead normal lives. Citizens in society indirectly fund the negative impact of child abuse, as taxpayers’ funds are drawn to pay community expenditures for juvenile and adult detention cells, and victims of psychiatric conditions. By large, the cost of supporting such expenses can be traced back to the behavioral impact of experiencing the categories of

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Copyright law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Copyright law - Essay Example â€Å"Work made for hire† is defined under  § 101, Chapter 1 of Title 17 on Copyrights of the US Code as work, which is either prepared by a person as part of his work during his employment or works which are especially commissioned. The ‘work made for hire’ rule constitutes an exception to the general rule that copyright ownership naturally belongs to the author or creator of that work, implying that in such cases, the employer or the person for whom the work is done or created for is deemed the copyright owner of the work.However, this can be true only if there is no express agreement in writing signed by the parties indicating a contrary intention ( § 210, Chapter 2 of Title 17, USC). Under the first definition of ‘work made for hire,’ the term employee is constructed in accordance with the holding of the Court in Community for Creative Non-Violence v Reid, 490 US 730 (1989). In that case, an artist’s help was solicited by a non-profit o rganization to aid in their campaign against homelessness. The artist acceded, but no agreement between them as to copyright ownership over the sculpture was entered into. When the artist later claimed copyright ownership, the organization went to court. The US Supreme Court held that the term ‘employee’ should be taken in the context of the conventional employee-employer relation, without resorting to the control test often employed in common law. The SC’s decision relied on the agency law, where agency is determined under a ten-factor test. Since the conditions in the case did not satisfy this, the Court held that it was not within the ambit of the ‘work made for hire’ and copyright ownership belonged to the artist. On the other hand, ‘work made for hire’ under the second type, or the especially commissioned works, is easier to determine because the law itself confined it to nine types of work: â€Å"as a contribution to a collective work; as part of a motion picture or other audiovisual work; as a translation; as a supplementary work; as a compilation; as an instructional text, or; as an atlas, if the parties expressly agree in a written instrument signed by them that the work shall be considered a work made for hire† ( § 101, Chapter 1 of Title 17, USC). Q2 Under  §102, Title 17 on Copyrights of the US Code, there are eight kinds of works of authorship upon which copyright protection can be had: literary works; musical works, including any accompanying words; dramatic works, including any accompanying music; pantomimes and choreographic works; pictorial, graphic and sculptural works; motion pictures and other audiovisual works; sound recordings, and architectural works. Copyright registration may be made either online or using paper forms, although online registrations can only be made for basic registrations. For non-online registrations, each type of work of art must use a corresponding form. Liter ary works, whether published or unpublished, for example, must use Form TX. Specifically Form TX is used for non-dramatic literary works such as fiction, non-fiction, poetry, textbooks, reference works, directories, catalogs, advertising copy, compilations of information, and computer programs. On the other hand, visual arts, published or unpublished, must use Form VA, with ‘visual arts’ comprising pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works. Works of artistic craftsmanship and design are also registrable under Form VA, but protection extends only to their form and not to their other aspects. For works of performing arts, published or unpublished, Form PA is used for registration. The performing arts category include within its ambit musical works, dramatic works, pantomimes and choreographic works, and motion pictures and audiovisual works. Form SR is the form used for the registration of sound recordings, published or unpublished, but may also be used to simultaneously r egister the underlying musical, dramatic or literary work accompanying the sound recording. Sound recording, however,

Saturday, August 24, 2019

The Changing Composition of Workforce and Values Essay

The Changing Composition of Workforce and Values - Essay Example Technological inventions have over time become a daily affair. In as much as it is aimed at simplifying operations, it is not an easy task for employees trying to keep up with the pace as refresher courses come in handy so as to acquaint them with the technology nature of the workforce. Work in current times is thus based more on practical skills so as to handle the digital operations. Unlike in the past, there is more emphasize on team work in the current workforce making social skills essential. Again resulting from technological advances, the world has become a small place as business connecting the entire world can be carried out from a central time hence making work flexible and itinerant. This eventually results in a more time conscious setting as locations of both client and service providers do not matter. The workforce is flooded with more learned employees resulting from advancements in education unlike in the past. Due to increasing service demands, the workforce is a rather competitive with customer satisfaction being the priority of operations. Technological advances have over time led to a decrease in labor due to the digital migration of the workforce operations. consequently, unlike in the past when employees were guaranteed of life-long career opportunities as well as secure jobs, employees in the current workforce risk losing their jobs to technology. Competition, the rapid rise in meeting client, often demands lead to frequent changes and aligning operations to suit demands and beat the competition. Values at the workforce are those guiding ideologies that are vital in governing how operations are carried out. They help in guiding the company in making ultimate decisions for their business and knowing what is best for pushing up profits as well as maintaining solid clientele basis. They are a mere reflection of the workforce and an easy point out of the company profile (Glickman, 1982). A

Friday, August 23, 2019

Apple Company Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Apple Company - Essay Example These factors generate a huge impact on the functioning of the business organisation as a whole. To this end, it must be noted that the business organisation can render effective control over the internal factors pertaining to human, technological and financial resources. On the contrary the external business factors divided along the micro and macro parts remain uncontrollable by the business. External factors like customers and suppliers along with competitors and government bodies and the different environmental events pertaining to political, economic, social, legal and technological landscape affect the organisation in a potential manner. Similarly the international and socio-demographic environment also affect the operations of the business concerns (Jain, Trehan & Trehan, 2009, p.7-14). In regards to the above discussion the essay now focuses on analysing the internal and external business environment of Apple Company. The company has gained a wide recognition in the internati onal market for producing computer and other information technology related products which focus on rendering high amount of sophistication and innovation. This fact enables the company to gain a large market share in the international arena in a much lesser time span (Lliev, Lindinger, & Poettler, 2004, p.6). Internal Environment of Apple Company The internal environment of Apple Computer Incorporation can be studied in respect to the human resource factors. Apple Computer Incorporation works on a strategic mindset while recruiting the proper quality of human resources in order to meet the organisational objectives. The company focuses on enhancing the quality of the workforce to help in enhancing the creative and innovative potential of the concern which thereby augments the productivity and organisational competence. Apple Computer Incorporation’s human resource policies thus strongly focus on gaining the right workforce which would help the company to deliver the best pos sible designs and technological innovations in the products produced. Further the company’s human resource function also renders potential importance in recruiting large amount of people to operate in creating attractive designs and contents on the web. This segment is rendered greater importance by the company for it helps the concern to reach a larger consumer base. Apple Computer Incorporation also reflects a huge potential in controlling the attrition rate of the employees in the concern. Through effective human resource policies the organisation successfully targets to retain key organisational people to help in generating large amount of productivity. The management team of Apple Computer Incorporation strategizes the formulation of organizational mission and visionary principles to help motivate the internal people in achieving stated ends. The visionary and missionary objectives should be strategically formulated by the business concern so as to develop a positive and lucrative image of the concern in the eyes of the principal stakeholders both internal and external. Human resource policies of Apple Incorporation also focus on helping the employees rise up the organisational ladder depending on their productivity and performance parameters. Thus the internal environment structure of the concern is quite amicable for the employees to develop their personal productivity. Another key feature of the human resource policies of Apple Computer Incorporation involves the outsourcing of human resource activities to key external human resource consultants. This function of outsourcing helps the business organisation to better manage the large scale of human resources

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Report on the Film “Black Cat, White Cat” by Emir Custurica Essay Example for Free

Report on the Film â€Å"Black Cat, White Cat† by Emir Custurica Essay have chosen to watch and report on the film â€Å"Black Cat, White Cat† by Emir Custurica for several reasons. Firstly, Custurica is a globally famous filmmaker, known in the US for his â€Å"Arizona Dream†. Secondly, Custurica does pay much attention to matters of culture in his films, so his works are very informative. Thirdly the characters of â€Å"Black Cat, White Cat† belong to different peoples and cultures, including Serbians, Gypsies and Bulgarians. So the film tells enough about cultural and cross-cultural communications. Produced in 1998, the film is a kind of romantic comedy telling a story of several young people in search of their love in the world of gangsters and smugglers. One of those smugglers named Matko Destanov owes money to a gangster named Dadan. Dadan is eager to find a husband for Afrodita – his midget sister and he proposes to settle the debt by marriage of Matko’s son Zare with his sister. However, Zare is in love with another girl named Ida, and Afrodita dreams o another man. After numerous funny and dangerous adventures all of the young people find their happiness, and Dadan finds himself in manure both in metaphorical and ordinary sense. The film is very ironic and easy to watch as a family comedy. As I have already noticed, the film tells much about cultural communications. Firstly these are family and friendship. The characters seem to be very family-oriented and â€Å"beautiful friendship† is one of the core motifs of the story. Young people dream of a family and stable relationships, older people desire to make their children happy as Zare’s grandfather and even such a savage man as Dadan wishes to do the will of his parents even though through violence. Personal relations are basic forces driving the characters in life, business and even crime. They rely upon help of their pals and relatives in virtually every action they take, thusly playing a tricky party game – each for own purposes but considering the will of the others. This can be illustrated by relations of Zare with his grandfather. Zare loves his grandfather and helps him to escape from hospital to return to his bacchanalian lifestyle, and the thankful grandfather gives all his money to Zare. Such approach to personal relations is full of traditionalism and is pretty different from the present situation in this country. Another cultural aspect, which might seem rather evil in this country is attitude of characters towards law. Throughout the film it may seem that there is no law and legal formalities at all. Customers are easily bribed, medical personnel is unable to control the patients, gangsters behave as actual rulers and an official solemnizing a marriages passively does everything what he is ordered to do, even knowing that marriage between Zare and Afrodita is forcible. However, the characters actually do not feel any discomfort from absence of formalities. Law is replaced by aforementioned personal relations, and perhaps they would feel unhappy from presence of legal obligations rather from absence of such obligations. There are many interesting minor cultural details in the film such as marriage customs, costumes, language features and other which, being combined together, create a fascinating impression of involvement in other culture. Films like â€Å"Black Cat, White Cat† cause spectators to become interested in strange lifestyles and habits forming an idea of global cultural diversity.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Customers Switching Behavior Essay Example for Free

Customers Switching Behavior Essay Relationships and individuals bank switching behavior Abstract We examine the role of relationships between individuals and their banks in determining bank switching behavior. Using data from a survey questionnaire from a random sample of bank customers in the United States, we find that the variables measuring the various dimensions of a relationship significantly lower an individuals propensity to switch banks. These include the duration of an individuals relationship with her bank, whether or not she has had problems with her bank in the past, and aspects of the quality of the service relationship. An innovation of the current paper lies in incorporating finance/economic aspects of relationship with the various dimensions of service quality relationship collectively as determinants of an individuals propensity to switch banks. The attributes capturing whether or not an individual feels that her bank is responsive, is empathetic and is reliable to her needs, are all significantly negatively correlated with her propensity to switch banks. Our results demonstrate just how relationships may help in limiting bank switching behavior and deliver a strong message to banks about the importance of relationships in retaining loyal customers. Our findings also underscore the interconnectedness of seemingly disparate disciplines to better understand the behavior and decision making of individuals and their banks. Author Keywords: Bank switching; Relationships

Choroidal Neovascular Membrane Associated with Sildenafil

Choroidal Neovascular Membrane Associated with Sildenafil CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULAR MEMBRANE ASSOCIATED WITH SILDENAFIL Â  Erectile dysfunction is an important problem among men aged 40 years and older. More than half of all men in this broad age group experience some degree of erectile dysfunction. Thus, the provision of an orally administrated efficacious treatment in the form of sildenafil represents a major therapeutic advantage.(1) Choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) is ultimately the result of a break in a structural layer beneath the retina known as Bruch’s membrane, which separates the nourishing vascular layer called the choroid from the retina. A break in Bruch’s membrane may allow the ingrowth of vessels from the choroid to a position just beneath the retina.(2) Ocular side effects are not uncommon when sildenafil is used. Minor side effects include pupillary dilation, conjunctival injection (redness), sensitivity to light (photophobia), and dryness. Visual function studies in healthy subjects and in patients with eye disease suggest that sildenafil does not affect visual acuity, visual fields, and contrast sensitivity. Transient, mild impairment of color discrimination can occur around the time of peak plasma levels.(3-7) The purpose of the present case report is to describe a patient who developed CNV after ingestion of Sildenafil for erectile dysfunction. CASE REPORT The patient was a 53-year old male who presented with a blurred and loss of vision in the right eye. His physical examination did not reveal any significant signs. The patient was fit and healthy otherwise and had no history of glaucoma, diabetes, hypertension, or other systemic vascular disease. Visual acuity was 4/10 in the right eye and 10/10 in the left eye. Anterior segment examination was normal. Fundus examination of the right eye revealed that the macula upper temporal quadrant was characterized by hemorrhagia and an elevated area (Figure 1A), the left eye revealed an atrophic area outside the macula. The FA of the patient revealed an area of bright hyperfluorescence in the early phase and leaks in the late phase (Figure 1B). A diagnosis of CNV was made. Argon laser photocoagulation was applied on the right eye. The patient did not suffer until 6 months after the laser application and the visual acuity in the right eye had increased up to 9/10. However, 6 months after the las er application, the patient noted loss of vision in the right eye. Argon laser photocoagulation was applied again. The control FA of the patient did not reveal a leakage of the scar on the right eye (Figure 2). The visual acuity of the patient was 10/10 bilaterally and he didn’t reveal any complaints. After 3 years, the patient was referred to our clinic with blurred and loss of vision in the left eye and when the patient underwent rigorous historical questioning, he noted that all his complaints were revealed with the use of 50 mg sildenafil. He said that he had taken 50 mg sildenafil before his complaints were revealed. His visual acuity was 10/10 in the right eye and 4/10 in the left eye. The FA revealed CNV and photodynamic therapy and intravitreal anti-VEGF injection were applied to his left eye (Figure 3). DISCUSSION In this study we present a patient with CNV associated with sildenafil use. CNV is ultimately the result of a break in a structural layer beneath the retina known as Bruch’s membrane, which separates the nourishing vascular layer called the choroid from the retina. A break in Bruch’s membrane may allow the ingrowth of vessels from the choroid to a position just beneath the retina .2 These vessels may then leak fluid or blood, initially distorting or blurring vision, and may eventually lead to scarring in the macula and severe loss of central vision. CNV is associated with many diseases. The most common causes are age-related macular degeneration (AMD), presumed inflammatory and infectious conditions, myopic macular degeneration, trauma, angioid streaks and laser therapy, however many cases are idiopathic.(2) Sildenafil is a potent and selective inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), an enzyme expressed throughout the smooth muscle of the vasculature.3 Through this mechanism, sildenafil potentiates the nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway that mediates corpus cavernosum smooth muscle relaxation and thereby significantly improves penile blood flow. Basic science and clinical research have effectively documented the effects of sildenafil on the retinal and choroidal vasculature. Sildenafil also has a weaker inhibitory action on PDE6, located in the rod and cone photoreceptors. Modest, transient visual symptoms, typically blue tinge to vision, increased brightness of lights, and blurry vision, have been reported with sildenafil use and occur more frequently at higher doses. Visual function studies in healthy subjects and in patients with eye disease suggest that sildenafil does not affect visual acuity, visual fields, and contrast sensitivity.(5,6) Transient, mild impairment of color discrimination can occur around the time of peak plasma levels. However, we were not able to find any case of CNV associated with sildenafil use in the literature. Sildenafil induces angiogenic response in human coronary arteriolar endothelial growth factor (VEGF).(7) The same mechanism may be available on the retina and sildenafil may increase the levels of VEGF. This issue requires further studies and patients with CNV should be questioned about the use of sildenafil. Patients should consult with an ophthalmologist if there is any question about the health of their eyes prior to using sildenafil. REFERENCES Irwin Goldstei, Tom F. Lue, Harin Padma-Nathan et al. Oral sildenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction N Engl J Med 1998; 338:1397-1404 Bressler NM, Bressler SB, Fine SL. Age related macular degeneration. Surv Ophthalmol 1988;32:375-413. Michael F. Marmor, Robert Kesler. Sildenafil and Ophthalmology. Survey of Ophthalmology 1999;44:153-162. Alan M. Laties, Eberhart Zrenner. Viagra and Ophthalmology. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 2002;21:485-506 DÃ ¼ndar SO. Visual loss associated with erectile dysfunction drugs. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology 2007;42(1):10-12 Zrenner E, Koppiker NP, Smith MD, Constable I, Littlewood R, Stuckey B. The effects of long-term sildenafil treatment on ocular safety in patients with erectile dysfunction. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2000;41:S592. Vidavalur R, Penumathsa SV, Zhal L. Sildenafil induces angiogenic response in human coronary arteriolar endothelial cells through the expression of thioredoxin, hemeoxygenase and vascular endothelial growth factor. Vascul Pharmacol. 2006;45:91-95. FIGURE FOR LEGENDS FIGURE 1A: Fundus examination of the right eye revealed that the macula upper temporal quadrant was characterized by hemorrhagia and an elevated area FIGURE 1B: The FA on the right eye of the patient revealed an area of bright hyperfluorescence in the early phase and leaks in the late phase FIGURE 2: The control FA of the patient did not reveal a leakage of the scar on the right eye after laser photocoagulation was applied. FIGURE 3: The FA on the left eye of the patient revealed an area of bright hyperfluorescence in the early phase and leaks in the late phase

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

george washington :: essays research papers

On April 30, 1789, George Washington, standing on the balcony of Federal Hall on Wall Street in New York, took his oath of office as the first President of the United States. "As the first of every thing, in our situation will serve to establish a Precedent," he wrote James Madison, "it is devoutly wished on my part, that these precedents may be fixed on true principles." Born in 1732 into a Virginia planter family, he learned the morals, manners, and body of knowledge requisite for an 18th century Virginia gentleman. He pursued two intertwined interests: military arts and western expansion. At 16 he helped survey Shenandoah lands for Thomas, Lord Fairfax. Commissioned a lieutenant colonel in 1754, he fought the first skirmishes of what grew into the French and Indian War. The next year, as an aide to Gen. Edward Braddock, he escaped injury although four bullets ripped his coat and two horses were shot from under him. From 1759 to the outbreak of the American Revolution, Washington managed his lands around Mount Vernon and served in the Virginia House of Burgesses. Married to a widow, Martha Dandridge Custis, he devoted himself to a busy and happy life. But like his fellow planters, Washington felt himself exploited by British merchants and hampered by British regulations. As the quarrel with the mother country grew acute, he moderately but firmly voiced his resistance to the restrictions. When the Second Continental Congress assembled in Philadelphia in May 1775, Washington, one of the Virginia delegates, was elected Commander in Chief of the Continental Army. On July 3, 1775, at Cambridge, Massachusetts, he took command of his ill-trained troops and embarked upon a war that was to last six grueling years. He realized early that the best strategy was to harass the British. He reported to Congress, "we should on all Occasions avoid a general Action, or put anything to the Risque, unless compelled by a necessity, into which we ought never to be drawn." Ensuing battles saw him fall back slowly, then strike unexpectedly. Finally in 1781 with the aid of French allies--he forced the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. Washington longed to retire to his fields at Mount Vernon. But he soon realized that the Nation under its Articles of Confederation was not functioning well, so he became a prime mover in the steps leading to the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia in 1787.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Television and Media - Daytime Talk TV is Immoral Essay -- Argumentati

Daytime Talk TV is Immoral Today’s society has become a visually based culture and, as a result, people learn and act from what they see. With the advent of television, many programs have been aired ranging from news programs to sitcoms and from game shows to talk shows, but talk shows, today, have the most effect on the public. Daily, viewers turn on their televisions and many are bombarded with images of sex, drugs, and violence on the talk shows. Unfortunately, many people are either disturbed or affected by what they see. As Vicki Abt and Leonardo Mustazza point out in their article, â€Å"Coming After Oprah: Cultural Fallout in the Age of the TV Talk Show,† â€Å"Surely long-term exposure to this genre has consequences for the way we judge ideas, behaviors, and ‘values’† . . .† (Abt and Mustazza 26). Despite many people’s beliefs that daytime talk TV today is purely entertainment, it is certain that it presents many immoral values and distorts th e reality of how our society should behave. One negative effect that talk shows have on their viewers is the false sense of reality portrayed to children. Many viewers of daytime talk TV are young children because many are not in school when these programs are being aired since they are not old enough to attend yet, or they have come back from school. Sadly, these children are exposed to the distortion of reality portrayed from these talk shows. Shows, such as Jenny Jones, Ricki Lake, and Jerry Springer, are constantly having guests who speak about topics like sex and drugs, and there is always violence as well. In most episodes, the guests are either cursing at each other or attempting to attack one another. Children viewing these episodes may begin to grasp a f... ... America needs to step back and take a look at what these talk shows are doing to society as a whole and rethink exactly what should be on talk shows and what should not. People are being corrupted with these images of sex, drugs, and violence, and it needs to come to an end. Though talk shows are not solely responsible for the way people behave or think, they are a big part of it. As they are teaching corrupted morals and values, it is obvious that talk shows are not purely entertainment, but are very immoral. Works Cited Abt, Vicki and Leonard Mustazza. â€Å"Coming After Oprah: Cultural Fallout in the Age of the TV Talk Show.† Reading Culture. 4th ed. Ed. Diana George and John Trimbur. New York: Longman, 2001. 25-27. Willis, Ellen. â€Å"Bring in the Noise.† Reading Culture. 4th ed. Ed. Diana George and John Trimbur. New York: Longman, 2001. 34-37.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

A Rational Look at the Abortion Controversy Essay -- Exploratory Essay

A Rational Look at the Abortion Controversy One of the most hotly contested issues inside and outside of biomedical ethics today is abortion. The discussion received a new impetus at the release of the controversial abortion drug RU-486, "a pill to increase access to abortions and let women get them privately from their own doctor instead of facing shouting protesters at clinics."2 As is the case with all controversial issues, there are very passionate people on both sides of the fence. Unfortunately, a heated discussion on abortion can easily and quickly turn into a battle of rhetoric rather than a dialectic of reason. But the guiding light in such a discussion must always be reason, not rhetoric or other fallacies, for only reason can solve this issue and judge which side is correct. In this brief essay, I shall attempt to clear away some of the confusion present in typical abortion debates by cooling the rhetoric with reason enlightened by scientific facts. Specifically, I will examine two common pro-abortion arguments made by Mary Anne Warren and Judith Jarvis Thomson and demonstrate that they cannot stand up to rational scrutiny and therefore fail to justify abortion. I shall also use a "quadrilemma" argument similar to that of Peter Kreeft's to show that, aside from all specific argumentation, abortion cannot be morally justified. Before even beginning to discuss the issue of abortion, it is imperative to agree upon a starting point from which to reason. The fact that some people differ even about this very point tends to render the pro-abortion and the anti-abortion paradigms somewhat "incommensurable," and this is probably one major reason why people are tempted to arrive at different conclusions about this ... ...ilure is equal to an unwanted pregnancy due to rape is nothing short of ridiculous. The sexual act by nature tends towards pregnancy, i.e., that is the natural purpose of the sexual act, and any woman who engages in this act voluntarily, with or without contraception, thereby willingly opens herself to pregnancy. 20 Wilcox, "Nature as Demonic," 468. 21 Wilcox, "Nature as Demonic," 468f. 22 M. LeRoy Sprang and Mark G. Neerhof, "Rationale for Banning Abortions Late in Pregnancy," Journal of the American Medical Association 280, no. 8 (1998): 745. 23 Sprang and Neerhof, "Banning Abortions," 745. 24 Cf. Peter Kreeft, Making Choices: Practical Wisdom for Everyday Moral Decisions (Ann Arbor, MI: Servant Publications, 1990), 119-21. 25 One might object that "abortion is morally neutral" is another possibility, but that which is morally neutral is morally permissible. A Rational Look at the Abortion Controversy Essay -- Exploratory Essay A Rational Look at the Abortion Controversy One of the most hotly contested issues inside and outside of biomedical ethics today is abortion. The discussion received a new impetus at the release of the controversial abortion drug RU-486, "a pill to increase access to abortions and let women get them privately from their own doctor instead of facing shouting protesters at clinics."2 As is the case with all controversial issues, there are very passionate people on both sides of the fence. Unfortunately, a heated discussion on abortion can easily and quickly turn into a battle of rhetoric rather than a dialectic of reason. But the guiding light in such a discussion must always be reason, not rhetoric or other fallacies, for only reason can solve this issue and judge which side is correct. In this brief essay, I shall attempt to clear away some of the confusion present in typical abortion debates by cooling the rhetoric with reason enlightened by scientific facts. Specifically, I will examine two common pro-abortion arguments made by Mary Anne Warren and Judith Jarvis Thomson and demonstrate that they cannot stand up to rational scrutiny and therefore fail to justify abortion. I shall also use a "quadrilemma" argument similar to that of Peter Kreeft's to show that, aside from all specific argumentation, abortion cannot be morally justified. Before even beginning to discuss the issue of abortion, it is imperative to agree upon a starting point from which to reason. The fact that some people differ even about this very point tends to render the pro-abortion and the anti-abortion paradigms somewhat "incommensurable," and this is probably one major reason why people are tempted to arrive at different conclusions about this ... ...ilure is equal to an unwanted pregnancy due to rape is nothing short of ridiculous. The sexual act by nature tends towards pregnancy, i.e., that is the natural purpose of the sexual act, and any woman who engages in this act voluntarily, with or without contraception, thereby willingly opens herself to pregnancy. 20 Wilcox, "Nature as Demonic," 468. 21 Wilcox, "Nature as Demonic," 468f. 22 M. LeRoy Sprang and Mark G. Neerhof, "Rationale for Banning Abortions Late in Pregnancy," Journal of the American Medical Association 280, no. 8 (1998): 745. 23 Sprang and Neerhof, "Banning Abortions," 745. 24 Cf. Peter Kreeft, Making Choices: Practical Wisdom for Everyday Moral Decisions (Ann Arbor, MI: Servant Publications, 1990), 119-21. 25 One might object that "abortion is morally neutral" is another possibility, but that which is morally neutral is morally permissible.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Global Equity Markets: The Case of Royal Dutch and Shell Essay

In early January 1996, Ms. Joanne Partridge, Director of Research at High Street Global Advisors (â€Å"High Street†), a Boston-based global investment management organization, was studying the price behavior of the shares of Royal Dutch Petroleum and Shell Transport and Trading. It seemed that Royal Dutch and Shell should trade in fixed proportions since they represented equivalent classes of shares of the same holding company. However, the ratio of share prices had been anything but constant. For example, Shell traded at a premium to Royal Dutch during 1990 and 1991, while Royal Dutch traded at a premium to Shell subsequent to 1991. Presently, the premium of Royal Dutch over Shell was at an all-time high of almost 12%. Joanne Partridge was trying to understand the opportunities presented by the Royal Dutch/Shell pricing discrepancy. Several of High Street’s U.S. domestic equity and global equity portfolios currently held significant positions in Royal Dutch. These positions could potentially be sold and replaced with equivalent-sized positions in Shell. In addition, the firm had recently landed several new accounts, and would soon be investing the funds. It would have to decide whether these new accounts should own Royal Dutch or Shell. Finally, High Street managed a hedge fund, High Street Partners, which could attempt to arbitrage the price discrepancy by taking a long position in Shell and an offsetting short position in Royal Dutch. High Street Global Advisors High Street Global Advisors managed approximately $40 billion of tax-exempt assets for pension funds, foundations and endowments, and about $15 billion in mutual funds held by individual investors. Most of these assets were in equity portfolios, whose investment mandates ranged from purely U.S.  domestic to non-U.S. to fully global. High Street viewed the world as consisting of one global economy. Accordingly, it emphasized appraising investment opportunities in a global context. At the core of the firm’s equity investment capability was a team of analysts who followed global industries such as chemicals, pharmaceuticals, autos, and oil, and who recommended their best stock selections within these industries to the ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Professors Kenneth A. Froot and Andre F. Perold prepared this case. HBS cases are developed solely as the basis for class discussion. Cases are not intended to serve as endorsements, sources of primary data, or illustrations of effective or ineffective management. Much of the data in the case is drawn from Kenneth A. Froot and Emil Dabora, â€Å"How are Stock Prices Affected by the Location of Trade?,† Harvard University, May 1996. Copyright  © 1996 President and Fellows of Harvard College. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 1-800-545-7685, write Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without the permission of Harvard Business School. This document is authorized for use only in Speculation, Crisis & Behavioral Finance (Huberman) EMBA FA14 by Gur Huberman at Columbia Business School from July 2014 to January 2015.  various equity portfolio managers. Partridge played a key role in giving  direction to these analysts and in managing the flow of ideas between them and the portfolio managers. Portfolio management at High Street was generally governed by a value-investing philosophy according to which securities were purchased if their prices were attractive relative to underlying company fundamentals. In the case of Royal Dutch, the oil analyst was recommending the company on the basis of its lower price-to-book and price-earnings ratios than the major U.S. oil firms and because the company was contemplating certain refinery shutdowns and other operating restructurings that would improve its competitiveness. Royal Dutch Petroleum and Shell Transport and Trading Royal Dutch Petroleum and Shell Transport and Trading were not independent companies. The two were linked to one another by corporate charter, which mandated that cash flows to the equity holders of each company should be distributed in a 60/40 ratio. (See Exhibit 1 for balance sheets and income statements of the combined Group companies.) The companies stated that, â€Å"the RoyalDutch/Shell Group of companies has grown out of a 1907 alliance between Royal Dutch and Shell Transport by which the two companies agreed to merge their interests on a 60/40 basis while remaining separate and distinct entities.† The organizational structure of the Group companies is depicted in Exhibit 2. All subsidiary companies’ shares were held by the Group Holding Companies, which in turn were owned by the two parent companies, Royal Dutch Petroleum and Shell Transport & Trading, in the ratio of 60/40. Royal Dutch and Shell were independently incorporated in the Netherlands and England, respectively. The companies’ alliance meant that all inflows from and outflows to shareholders were split 60/40.1 Combining this 60/40 split with the number of shares of Royal Dutch and Shell outstanding, meant that one share of Royal Dutch was entitled to the same cash flows as 9.2744 shares of Shell.2 The Group had attempted to make information widely available concerning parent company linkages. In addition to being explained at the beginning of each Annual Report, the corporate connections were detailed in 20F  submissions to the U.S. SEC. The linkages were also the subject of a dedicated analyst/investor guide. While the Group actively attempted to split the cashflows according to the 60/40 ratio, there were a number of factors that caused dividend payments to deviate away from that ratio. These issues are discussed in the Appendix below. Analysts at High Street believed these factors to be relatively minor. Royal Dutch and Shell were listed on nine exchanges in Europe and the United States. Most of Royal Dutch’s trading activity took place in the United States and the Netherlands markets, whereas Shell’s trading occurred predominantly in the U.K. market. In New York, however, Shell shares did trade as American Depository Receipts (ADRs), with one ADR being equivalent to six shares of Shell Transport and Trading. Thus, 1.5457 (9.2744/6) Shell ADRs were equivalent to one share of Royal Dutch. Geographical ownership information for Royal Dutch and Shell are shown in Exhibit 3. Exhibit 4 contains information on the trading volume of Royal Dutch and Shell in New York, 1†³Royal Dutch and Shell Transport shall share in the aggregate net assets and in the net aggregate dividends and interest received from Group companies in the proportion of 60/40. It is further arranged that the burden of all taxes in the nature of or corresponding to an income tax leveeable in respect of such dividends and interest shall fall in the same proportion.† Royal Dutch 20-F, 1993, pp. 1-2. Specifically, the company distributed corporate tax shields (generated by Shell’s dividends under UK tax law) on a 60/40 basis to the shareholders of both companies (see the Appendix below). 2As of January 1996, there were 536,074,088 shares of Royal Dutch and 3,314,503,242 shares of Shell outstanding.  London, and Amsterdam since 1991. Royal Dutch had long been included in the S&P 500 and the most popular Amsterdam stock index, the CBS Herbeleggings. Similarly, Shell had long been included in the major index of U.K. stocks, the Financial Times Allshare Index (FTSE).3 Although Royal Dutch was a foreign-owned corporation, it was considered a U.S. stock by many institutional investors by virtue of its inclusion in common U.S. stock indexes. Major inst itutional holdings of Royal Dutch and Shell are listed in Exhibits 5 and 6. It appeared that arbitrage across markets disciplined the price of Royal Dutch, so that it was essentially equal around the world. That is, at a given time, it would cost an equivalent amount to buy a share of Royal Dutch in Amsterdam as it would in New York. The same was true of Shell prices in London and New York, although for Shell the geographic disparities were generally somewhat larger. (See Exhibit 7 for historical geographic price disparities of Royal Dutch and Shell and Exhibit 8 for current pricing differentials.) However, the price of Royal Dutch fluctuated considerably when compared with the price of Shell. For example, on January 3, 1996, shares of Royal Dutch and Shell closed in Europe at fl227.8004 (Amsterdam) and ?8.6300 (London), respectively. At prevailing exchange rates, these prices were close to those that prevailed on the same day at the close of the New York markets.5 (See Exhibit 9.) However, in both Europe and the United States, Royal Dutch was considerably more expensive than Shell (see Exhibits 8 and 9). Partridge was curious about the nature of the pricing differential. She wondered whether the strong performance of the S&P 500 compared to international stocks in 1995 might explain part of the current premium on Royal Dutch shares.6 In particular, Partridge wondered whether Royal Dutch would appear more highly correlated with the United States and Netherlands markets than Shell, and, similarly, whether Shell would appear more highly correlated with the U.K. market than Royal Dutch. If so, then an increase in, say, U.S. stocks would, all else equal, result in an increase in the price of Royal Dutch relative to that of Shell. To investigate this, Partridge had an analyst compare the betas of Royal  Dutch and Shell. The analyst regressed the difference between the returns on Royal Dutch and Shell on both market index and currency returns. (The betas of the Royal Dutch / Shell return differential are reported in Exhibit 10.) For example, a beta of 0.2 against the S&P 500 would indicate that a 1% increase in U.S. stocks (holding other countries’ stock prices and currencies constant) would be associated with a 20 basis point increase in the price of Royal Dutch relative to that of Shell. Partridge also knew that dividend withholding taxes might alter investor perceptions of relative stock value. This should not have been very important for private investors in the United Kingdom, Netherlands, and United States, all of whom faced symmetric withholding taxes on the dividends of Royal Dutch and Shell. However, pension funds sometimes faced tax asymmetries with respect to the two stocks. For example, U.K. pension funds were exempt from withholding taxes on Shell, but not on Royal Dutch, and conversely, Netherlands pension funds were exempt from withholding taxes on Royal Dutch, but not on Shell. Partridge wondered whether tax issues could explain the behavior of the relative price of Royal Dutch versus Shell. Exhibit 11 shows the dividend and withholding taxes faced by different investor groups. Analysis of the Investment Opportunities Before suggesting any trades based on the price differential between Royal Dutch and Shell, Partridge wanted to better understand the costs that might be involved. To do so, she enlisted the help of High Street’s trading desk and also a prominent Wall Street firm through which High Street funneled much of its volume in international stocks, and which High Street also used for customized derivatives transactions. Partridge began by thinking through the economics of selling Royal Dutch and purchasing Shell. This would be relevant for the portfolios in which Royal Dutch was presently being held, and which had a mandate for owning â€Å"foreign† as well as â€Å"domestic† shares. Some of High Street’s clients had given it strict â€Å"U.S.-only† mandates which permitted it to hold Royal Dutch but not Shell. On the New York Stock Exchange, both Royal Dutch and Shell ADRs were typically quoted at a 25? bid-offer spread in small-sized quantities (one thousand to five thousand shares). The spread usually would be wider for large sized trades. In addition, for trades in listed stocks, High Street paid its brokers a one-way commission of 5? per share. In Amsterdam, Royal Dutch was typically quoted at a spread of fl0.3 for small trades, and, in London, Shell was typically quoted at a spread of ?0.03 for small trades. In both Amsterdam and in London, High Street would pay one -way commissions on top of these spreads of 30 basis points. The United Kingdom also imposed Stamp Tax, a 50 basis point transfer tax on purchases of U.K. stocks, including Shell.7 Trades in Royal Dutch in Amsterdam and in Shell in London would also require the conversion from guilders and pounds to dollars. These currencies tended to trade at bid-ask spreads of six basis points. If High Street’s hedge fund were to attempt to arbitrage the price discrepancy, one alternative would entail selling short shares of Royal Dutch and purchasing shares of Shell. In a short sale, the hedge fund would borrow shares of Royal Dutch, sell the shares, and later repurchase them and return them to the lender. The hedge fund would have to reimburse the lender for any dividends paid on Royal Dutch shares during this interim period. In addition, the hedge fund would have to pay a fee for borrowing the shares. This tended to run about 40 basis points per annum. This fee usually took  the form of an interest rate give-up on the proceeds of the short sale. The proceeds of a short sale would usually be held as cash collateral to protect the lender against borrower default. The cash would be invested in short-term instruments earning LIBOR or slightly less, and all but 40 basis points of this interest income would be rebated to the hedge fund. The hedge fund also would have to finance its long position in Shell. Presently, it was able to borrow at a rate of LIBOR + 75 basis points (on a fully collateralized basis). The hedge fund often took significantly leveraged positions, especially in situations where the risk was deemed minimal.8 There were other alternatives available to the hedge fund involving the use of derivatives. One set of strategies involved the use of exchange-traded put and call options. There were fairly active options markets for Royal Dutch in the United States and Shell in the United Kingdom. These were short-term options, however, with maturities of six months or less. The options were usually slightly cheaper to trade than the underlying shares, although with rollovers they would become more expensive. A potentially attractive feature of options-related strategies was that they permitted the hedge fund to easily tailor its risks in an asymmetric fashion. 7 No Stamp Tax was levied on purchases of Shell ADRs, however. 8 On its hedge fund, High Street received a management fee of 1% per annum on net assets plus 20% of profits earned in excess of LIBOR. A second derivatives-related strategy involved the use of a privately-negotiated total return swap. The simplest total return swaps involved two counterparties agreeing to exchange the total return on one  instrument for the total return on another, plus or minus a fee, where the total return on an instrument is its price appreciation or loss during the holding period, plus interest or dividend income paid on the instrument during the holding period. Swaps could be customized in almost any way, for example, to allow the exchange of total returns on differing underlying amounts (â€Å"notional amounts†), or to include option-like features. Swaps also could be written for just about any maturity. The fee charged by the issuer of the swap typically depended on the ease of trading in the underlying instruments, the use of options and other features which might be embedded in the swap, and the credit-worthiness of the counterparty.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Exxon Valdez †Continuing Case Essay

Many years ago, Raymond Baumhart the greatest sociologist questioned organization people, â€Å"What does ethics mean to the business world?† Some people believe that Ethics is a kind of feeling which would give the knowledge about right or wrong situation on the basis of religious beliefs. While other argues the prior view admitting that it simply the level of behaviour society accepts and the law requires. â€Å"Ethics is a study of moral standards whose explicit purpose is to determine as far as possible whether a given moral standard is more or less correct (Manuel G. Velasquez, 2006)† Standpoint March 24, 1989, one of the Exxon Valdez, a loaded oil tanker with 52 million gallons crude oil runs in Prince William Sound, spilling 11 million gallons of oil. The government was strongly feeling about the environmental damage, to the fishery and the life of people involved there. Output That was bad luck for the wildlife, approximately 30,000 birds and 2000 sea others lost their lives. More than $2 billion spent just to clean it up and paid millions of dollar to the fishermen. Ethically, Exxon lost image in the world and about 40,000 credit cards destroyed in protest. Ethical Issues It was truly horrific, the longer that marine animal is setting in oil the more they were dealing with death. Consumers lost their faith in Exxon and faced opposition from the world. The affected area has not fully recovered. The control over the ethical situation This was the worst environmental disaster America has ever faced. After a week, CEO Lawrence Rawls wrote apology note in all newspapers. In addition they began cleanup immediately after the situation occurred. Many of the ethical issues and dilemmas in international business are rooted in the fact that political systems and laws differ from nation to nation. In the international business setting, the most common ethical issue involve employment practices and corruption. According to the given case of Castle & Cook, â€Å"whistle-blower† would be able to file the lawsuit in a federal court. The plaintiffs alleged claims under the violation of the â€Å"Foreign Corrupt Practices Act† The jurisdiction in this case can enable the person thus empowered to act towards, and in what manner this power may be exercised. In Subject matter jurisdiction thus empowers â€Å"whistle-blower† to act toward certain kinds of legal questions, whereas in Personal jurisdiction, the foreign country employee lives out of state, the court must look at the contacts with the state. Going into a state regularly to conduct business is usually sufficient for the court to obtain jurisdiction. (The à ¢â‚¬ËœLectric Law Library,2014) References The Laws That Govern the Securities Industry. (n.d.). Retrieved September 4, 2014, from The ‘Lectric Law Library’s Lexicon Personal Jurisdiction, Retrieved September 4, 2014, from ( In 1989, the Exxon Valdez tanker spilled nearly 11 million gallons of oil around the cost of Alaska; it caused one of the worst oil spills in the United States history. The Exxon Valdez continues to suffer from last 25 years and still paying off for the incident. The Exxon was to be sued by many individuals and businesses within state or federal court as required, as per the administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, for the Environmental regulations law comes under both state and federal court. Some company sued under the law of business losses within the federal court. Sea Hawk Sea foods, Inc, having a seafood processing business on Prince William Sound in Valdez, Alaska sued the Exxon shipping company under the law of business losses. The court dismissed the case with the advice of federal admiralty  law (9th Cir.1994). Fishing industry filed the complaint again Exxon. In 1994, the Exxon was initially ordered to pay $5 billion by federal court, which was reduced in federal appeal in 2006 to $2.5 billion. In 2008, The United States Supreme court had decided to cut down the damage by $500 million as Exxon has already spent approximately $2 billion for cleanup and recovery (New York Times, 2010). The Exxon shipping co continues with the lesson, even after paying all these damages and standing for a long time in the federal and Supreme Court of the United States. References The district court also removed more than 160 other state law cases relating to the oil spillEyak Native Vill. v. Exxon Corp., 25 F.3d 773, 774 (9th Cir.1994) Retrieved September 5, 2014, from ( New York Times, Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (1989), August 3, 2010 07-219Exxon Shipping Co. v. Baker (2/27/08), Retrieved September 5, 2014, from (

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Alliance Nissan & Renault Essay

Founded in 1999, the Renault-Nissan Alliance has become the longest-lasting cross-cultural combination among major carmakers. This unique partnership is a pragmatic, flexible business tool that can expand to accommodate new projects and partners worldwide. In the past half-decade, the Alliance has emerged as a buffer to protect partners during regional downturns, and it has accelerated Renault and Nissan’s momentum in some of the world’s fastest growing economies. Renault holds a 43.4% stake in Nissan. Nissan holds a 15% stake in Renault. The cross-shareholding model ensures that both partners have a mutual selfinterest and encourages each to pursue â€Å"win-win† strategies that benefit both. Formed on March 28, 2002, Renault-Nissan BV is a company incorporated under Dutch law and equally owned by Renault SA and Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., responsible for the strategic management of the Alliance. The Alliance has helped Renault and Nissan outperform historic regional rivals, elevating both companies into an elite tier. Together, Renault and Nissan rank in the top three car groups globally.  Based on cross-shareholding and mutual self-interest, the Alliance business platform maximizes synergies without destroying brand identity. In order to achieve competitive economies of scale, many automakers are embarking on collaborations similar to the groundbreaking partnership that Renault and Nissan established 13 years ago.

Immigration to the United States

The controversy over immigration policy has become one of the most pressing issues in the United States. There are many misconceptions when it comes to immigration but the United States actually benefits from immigration by allowing foreigners to live study and work here. There are immigrants who have earned their citizenship in this in this country and are making the best of it and then there are those who come to this country just to cause harm. We as a people need to understand the difference between the two and to realize that there are some benefits to immigration. Those who are opposed to immigration always claim that immigrants take on jobs, lower wages and drain too much tax money. According to a study by Public Policy Institute of California, â€Å"immigrants who arrived in the State between 1990 and 2004 increased wages of native workers by an average of 4%. † What they do not realize is that jobs that immigrants take on are jobs that most people in America would not take whether immigrants were here or not. There are plenty of economic benefits to immigration reform. I’ve learn that â€Å"immigration reform would increase U. S. GDP, which is Gross Domestic Product by at least 0. 84 percent. This would translate into at least a $1. 5 trillion cumulative increase in GDP over 10 years. † Immigrants contribute to our society, maybe not as much as those who were born here but there are some positive things that come out of immigration. Not all immigrants are here to cause terror and threaten the lives of other human beings. A study that was done by the Immigration Policy Center in Washington D. C. howed that â€Å"immigrant men between the ages of 18 to 39 had an incarceration rate five times lower than people born in the United States. † There are people who have worked hard to earn to citizenship and should not have to be placed into a certain category just because they were not born here. Also there is a diversity value to having immigrants living in the United States. Having people live here who were not brings about cultural and social changes along with opinions and ideas for new developments. The benefit of immigrants moving here is to have a better life. They would not have moved here if they did not imagine a better standard of living. The benefit may not be for the United States but there is a benefit for the immigrants. Immigration has its advantages and disadvantages. Some of the disadvantages include† greater poverty, increase in crimes, lower unskilled wage, education costs, and a few others. † On the other hand, the positive benefits of immigration far outweigh the disadvantages in many ways such as the economic advantages and the cultural advantages. More often than not most immigrants come to the United States looking to make a better life for themselves. Some immigrants go through so much trouble just to be turned away. When applying for citizenship there is a lot of paperwork and intense interviews. Immigrants who are here illegally and just wanted to cause harm do not deserve to live here in America, but those who have worked hard to earn their citizenship deserve the same rights as someone who was born here.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Assessment Task-Cypop 14

Assessment task-CYPOP 14 Support children and young people to have possitive relationships. Part 1- The importance of positive relationships. Part2- How to support children and young people when they are in relationship difficulties. 1. identify the different relationships children and young people may have ? Parents, siblings and extended family ? Friends, enemies ? Doctors, dentist ? Social workers ? Teachers/tutors ? Carer’s Explain the importance of positive relationships for development and well-being (Learning outcome 1. 2) ? Children’s welfare can be properly monitored. Children are given consistent care. ? Children’s needs and interests are identified. ? Skills and ideas can be shared. ? Plans for children’s care and education are more effective |A sense of connection and belonging. Good relationships are really important for our wellbeing. Humans have evolved as social animals, so ability to develop good relationships is an extremely important ste p on the path to getting the best out of his or her life. we have a deep, natural need to connect with other people and to belong to a social group.This sense of connection and belonging comes from good relationships with the people around us – in our families, at work or school and with our friends. There is strong evidence that when we feel we belong, we will flourish. This section explains what makes a good relationship. It gives information on how you can build better relationships with children and how you can help children form good relationships with others. A child’s ability to develop good relationships is an extremely important step on the path to getting the best out of his or her life

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Trade Union Negotiation and Strikes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Trade Union Negotiation and Strikes - Essay Example While the trade negotiations can be, and often are, filled with emotional hot buttons for both parties, game theory gives the parties tools to use to evaluate their prospective positions, and weigh the possible outcomes of their negotiations, and hence arrive at an agreement which is mutually beneficial for all parties, a win - win situation if you will. Too often, trade negotiations can devolve into a win-loose argument, in which the management is seen as taking from the unions in order to gain for itself, or vice versa. When the trade talks head in this direction, the parties seldom are able to make positive progress toward goals which can benefit both management and labor. Only be reaching toward a cooperative agreement can they create a positive work environment, and a financially healthy company. To understand how game theory benefits labor negotiations, one must first understand the five elements of game theory The game theory is defined as an interaction between a number of parties in which the following five elements are present. 1. The players: there are a defined number of players with defined roles. Game theory must identify how many players there, and whether or not natural elements outside the persons play a role, or if chance can play a role in the decisions. 2. The conditions or roles of the players: The players must be understood, along with their possible decisions. In other words there should be a minimal number of known decisions which the parties can undertake in order to apply game theory. 3. Information: the information which the players have with which to make decisions should be known. In other words, all the variables in the negotiations must be known in order to assist the parties using game theory. 4. Payoff Consequences: the parties must know what the course of their decisions will produce. Parties must know and understand what will be the consequences of choosing A or B or C in the negotiations. 5. Player preferences: Finally, a thorough knowledge of the preferences which the players would like to pursue should also be on the table. (see Duffy, 2003) When these 5 elements are known by the participants in the trade negotiations, then game theory can help them move toward effective resolution of their issues, as well has help them understand the payoff and the costs of their respective decisions. Game theory is often called a means for making moral decisions. The theory seeks to find a solution which works toward the benefit of the greatest number of people, maximizing all parties return. Thus, the theory's outcome has been compared to morality in decisions making. However, one way to undermine the effectiveness of this theory is for parties to come to the table with the assumption that their particular perspective or their desired outcome is the moral high ground. This assumption by one of the parties is a sure path toward defeating the effectiveness of game theory. According to Hardin (1988, 2003, negotiators should be wary of moral theorists that claim universality for their

Monday, August 12, 2019

What is the best way to educate American children Essay - 1

What is the best way to educate American children - Essay Example The individualism in this response makes it clear that there is no one right answer to the question and that choice is a necessary component to any functional system of education. For instance, the standards applied to one student may clearly fail to apply to another student of significantly diminished abilities, and for the latter child, special attention may be required. However, there are many proposed answers to the question of the best means to educate in our society, and many of them require universalizing a single means touted as the most effective or most efficient in all cases. While not the best for all cases, home-based education does offer the best chance for the average student to succeed and thrive in a comfortable and beneficial learning environment. Other solutions to the problem of education, namely independent (or private) schools and traditional (or public) schools, do not offer the same kind of benefits as home-based education. Moreover, these alternative solution s are based on philosophically opposed assumptions and thereby forge a gulf through which home-based education passes through and asserts itself as the ideal solution. Home-based education is superior with respect to two intellectually significant criteria. The first is educational performance, which, as identified in Henslin (2005), is demonstrably better in homeschooled children than in their peers educated in a public school system. In a testing scenario, targeting 21,000 home schooled children who had much higher proficiency on these tests than that of students in public schools, home schooled children outperformed their public school counterparts in every meaningful category of evaluation. In this study, the students highlighted scored in the 70th and 80th percentiles, which is 10 to 20 percentage points higher than when these tests were administered to public school students (Henslin, 2005, pp. 512-13). The second criterion is moral and ethical in nature: how does the

Sunday, August 11, 2019

In Defense of Prejudice by Jonathan Rauch Essay

In Defense of Prejudice by Jonathan Rauch - Essay Example The essay "In Defense of Prejudice by Jonathan Rauch" discusses the article, written by Jonathan Rauch. He was born 1960 in Phoenix, Arizona. After his graduation from Yale University, Rauch started work at the Winston-Salem Journal in North Carolina, for the National Journal magazine, and ultimately as a self-employed writer.A criticizer of U.S. government civic policy in general, Rauch has followed homosexual-related subjects as an explicitly homosexual author since 1991, and is a keen supporter of same-sex matrimony. The author, being a Jew and a homosexual has clearly been exposed to bias in the past, which makes his writing-piece all the more influential. The article is not coming from a disgruntled individual on the top of the social ladder, it is written by the kind of individual who believes that hate-crime regulations are meant to safeguard. Rauch initiates by asserting that bias is an inevitable aspect of humankind, that "Homosapiens is a tribal species for whom "us versus them" comes naturally and must be continually pushed back." This intolerant nature he says is accountable for small factions being battered, as what is inexplicable is naturally dreaded, he senses that this nature is an inherent component of civilization, "for as thickheaded and wayward an animal as us, the realistic question is how to make the best of prejudice, not how to eradicate it." So how to make the better and the most of prejudice? Rauch proposes that to disapprove prejudice only makes it stronger., and lashes out against those "crusaders for sweetness and light" whom he tags as "purists." He asserts that in the purist’s effort to eliminate cruel words from general use they have lent a type of "shamanistic" supremacy to them, as however the words could now cause corporal destruction. He quotes a sample of the use of the word "nigger" by Charles Lawrence in 1990; "The experience of being called 'nigger,' 'spic,' 'Jap,' or 'kike' is like receiving a slap in the face," In their benevolent effort to defend the purists have become authoritarian in substance, like the church in its effort to terminate McCarthyites and heretics trying to abolish communalism the purists have gone way too far. The philology used by the purists takes on a terrifyingly acquainted attitude. In his assessment it is not only for ease and parity that prejudice must be demolished, it is for the very protection of the individuals. It advances a whole new logic of earnestness to the purist’

Saturday, August 10, 2019

About the Film Amadeus Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

About the Film Amadeus - Research Paper Example The whole movie could be an answer to the reason why Saileri tried to kill himself if he really did. According to the film writer, this is a confession from Saileri. The first scene shows a young priest visiting Saileri, seeking to take his confession. It is intended to inform the people about what really happened. The problem is, this is just a film, and any film could include real life stories or be just fiction. Additionally, the person taking the confession is a priest. Priests are not allowed to share any person’s confession. One could, therefore, wonder how the story was obtained. According to Saileri in the film, he is the one who killed Mozart. Killing Mozart has different meanings from the author of the film’s perspective and from Saileri’s perspective. The author by portraying this as a confession may be trying to tell the story according to what has been said for a long time in the streets. He may also be telling people, that Saileri undeniably, confessed to having killed Mozart. A murder of Mozart, however, has different meanings. The fact that Saileri was in an asylum represents his status at the time. He was not of sound mind. Saileri even tried to slit his throat. Killing Mozart could also have a different meaning in that, Saileri did not literally kill him using poison or any other thing, but may have pressured him too much. Again one could say that pressure is not only negative, as portrayed in the whole movie where Saileri, pushes him to finish the Requiem. This could have a different meaning; trying to tell people that since they wer e rivals, he was the source of his problems. From Saileri’s perspective, by saying that he killed Mozart, he may have been truly confessing. It could also mean he killed Mozart’s career, and in the long run killed him, since Mozart now had too much to handle. Being in the asylum is also an explanation of how much Saileri loved Mozart’s music. The thought of Mozart’s death could be the reason of his mental status, causing him to attempt suicide. There is a man in a mask commissioning Mozart to write a Requiem. In the movie, the man here is Saileri. This has different meanings as well. In real life, this is rumored to be a rich man’s servant, who planned to claim to have written the Requiem. Saileri compares himself to this mask man in terms of what they did to Mozart, or it could be that he once wore a mask and presented himself to Mozart and commissioned the Requiem to be written. The man in a mask could also mean that Saileri was the masked cause of Mozart’s death. The movie is also a message to people about what really caused the death of a prominent song writer. Anger, pride and selfishness, led Saileri to his last actions, which as he claims killed his rival. It is a lesson to all. Saileri believed that Mozart was brought by God, to laugh at his career as a song writer. He said in his confession that his father died so that he could be a song writer, changing career path from that planned for him by his father. He took this career path confidently, with a lot of pride, only for a younger song writer to beat him in the game. Saileri thought that Mozart was not fit for the career. He was the only one who was supposed to take up the career and be the best in it. Mozart to him, was a message from God that he is not the only one, and not the best. Saileri was too proud, and so this film could be an awareness campaign to the negative consequences of pride. The same applies to selfishness and anger. Saileri was very angry with God for bringing the young composer who would take everything away from him. He therefore developed a plan to challenge God by taking God’s best created, and manipulating people to believe that he is the

Teachers as Agents of Social Change Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Teachers as Agents of Social Change - Essay Example In this manner, there is a direct relationship between culture and education. While culture gives identity to a society, education sustains it. Education also plays a dynamic role in society. It performs the function of an initiator of social change. It not only generates new ideas and values but also transmits them to the younger generation. In this chapter, our attempt will be to examine the relationship between education and social change. Education emerges out of the needs of society. An individual member passes away in course of time, but society continues to exist and new members are added to it by birth. Every society, thus, tries to stay together as a unit and develops a way of life. The group members have to train children to carry on the customs, knowledge and skills of the group to preserve and perpetuate their way of life. This function is performed by education. Education also trains people to develop new ideas and adjust to a changing environment. Parents and family play an informal role in education. A more formal part comes from education provided by social groups and community agencies. School, which is especially established for the purpose, conducts the most formal education. School has, thus, become a social necessity for providing special learning. It makes possible the accumulation and transmission of knowledge on a large scale which were impossible before. Education, thus, performs several social f unctions. Starting from the socializing role in a family, its tasks cover areas like economic organization, social stratification and political ideas. This is the essence of Apple's statement: that teachers as well as the whole education system should be the agents of change. More than a century ago, Emile Durkheim rejected the idea that education could be the force to transform society and resolve social ills. Instead, Durkheim concluded that education "can be reformed only if society itself is reformed." He argued that education "is only the image and reflection of society. It imitates and reproduces the latterit does not create it" (Durkheim 1951: 372-373). Most mainstream proposals for improving education assume that our society is fundamentally sound, but that for some reason, our schools are failing. Different critics target different villains: poor quality teachers, pampered, disruptive or ill-prepared students, the culture of their families, unions, bureaucrats, university schools of education, tests that are too easy, or inadequate curriculum. But if Durkheim was correct, a society has the school system it deserves. Denouncing the poor quality of education is like blaming a mirror because you do not like your reflection. The first step in improving education is to recognize that the problems plaguing our schools are rooted in the way our society is organized. We live in a competitive economy where businesses and individuals continually seek advantage and higher profits, and where people on the bottom rung of the economic ladder are stigmatized as failures and blamed for their condition. Our culture glorifies violence in sports, movies, video games, and on evening news broadcasts that celebrate the death of others through hygienic strategic bombings. It is a society where no one feels obligated to pay taxes for the broader social good and where welfare