Monday, September 30, 2019

John Green Essay

Not only is he an author but he spends his time making an effort in what can be done to focus on the greater good in the world such as contributing to donations around the world to help others. His novels all convey an important message that should all be taken under consideration. Five efficient themes can involve the following: ignoring risks for adventure, loss of innocence, assuaging guilt after loss and blaming ones self, relationships in relation to teen romance and coming of age. He is also known for making videos on the internet while letting his voice be heard and teaching society history in his website known as â€Å"Crash Course†. The author, John Green, has made an impact on his readers by expressing life changing themes in his works along with how his life impacted his work and lasting contributions. John Green, an awe-inspiring author born on August 24th, 1977. He was primarily raised in walking distance of Disney World in Orlando, Florida. After high school, John resided in Ohio and graduated from Kenyon College in 2000 with a double major in English and Religious Studies. For a few consecutive years, he exerted himself for the book review journal Booklist as both a publishing assistant along with production editor. While committed to the job, he was also writing his first book Looking for Alaska. Not only did he have those jobs, he also critiqued books for The New York Times Book Review and helped out Chicago’s public radio station. Green then moved and lived with his wife in New York City for two years while she was attending graduate school. While being both an author and a critic, John also became a famous YouTuber alongside his brother, Hank Green. In 2007, the Vlogbrothers were formed along with a Brotherhood 2. 0 project that took all 365 days of continuous videos being sent back and forth between both brothers as their only source of communication. All of these videos went viral, and the videos still are being created to this day. The first novel, Looking for Alaska, published in 2005, won the 2006 Michael L. Printz Award in the United States and the Silver Inky Award in Australia. At first, he never truly envisioned himself as someone who could go from telling stories to actually writing them in print. It grows to be a difficult task for anyone who wants to be an author but luckily after reaching his college years is where John really obtained the ability to write stories to the point where they made sense and were destined to be published. That is where Looking for Alaska comes into play. His intentions for the outcome of this book were to make all of his previous ex-girlfriends jealous which could presumably work in most cases. Also, Green truly gained the inspiration while attending a boarding school to begin writing his first novel. As he proclaims, â€Å"I like writing for teenagers because big questions–about love and religion and compassion and grief–matter to teens in a very visceral way. And it’s fun to write teenage characters. They’re funny and clever and feel so much so intensely† (Q&A with Author John Green). In 2006, John released his second novel known as An Abundance of Katherines. This novel received recognition such as becoming a finalist for the Los Angeles Times Book Prize while also coinciding as being named a Michael L. Printz Honor Book. His third novel published in 2008, was placed number five on the New York Times bestseller list and even granted John to win yet another award such as the Edgar Allen Poe award for best mystery novel. One year later, Paper Towns was placed among number one in the ALA (American Library Association) Teens’ Top Ten by over 11,000 readers. (Bloomsbury). Throughout the time of his novels gaining fame, his fame throughout the internet has begun spreading rapidly. At this rate his channel that he currently shares with his brother, aka Vlogbrothers has received over 20,573,626 views. This continues to grow more and more everyday due to a ommunity that the Green brothers have associated as Nerdfighters. Vlogbrothers also currently have over 607,000 subscribers while being in charge of a gigantic YouTube event known as VidCon that is an event held over summer. Green is an extreme professional in relation to multi-tasking and is constantly involved in numerous projects. He runs a blog, k nown as fishingboatproceeds. tumblr. com, along with a website for DFTBA records, an enthralling YouTube that is specifically used for his teachings of World History, while lastly being a full time father to his son Hank at home. Not only has he written his own novels but he has co-written a few as well. For example, Will Grayson, Will Grayson along with Let It Snow are two novels that are partially written by him. Everything is still revolved around the lives of Young Adults which is a certain theme that went on sale January 10th. This novel is such an extreme success, due to the fact that it has remained number one on New York Times Bestseller list for a few consecutive weeks. The popularity for the preorder is what even got the date to be pushed forward for release. Green initially promised to sign the entire first printing for the preorder which caused a rapid pace in it being essential to own a copy instantaneously. The novel was originally set to release in May 2012, but due to high order of demand it was able to be viewed by the public by January 10th. This was a relief to most sincere there are numerous positive reviews reflecting upon the entire book. Green is extremely involved with his fan base, and has the ability to interact with everyone throughout his Social Networking sites and most wholeheartedly, through his novels as well. As he remarks, â€Å"I’m ultimately much more passionate about writing and books, but I really love YouTube and the community that’s built up around our videos,† Green says. One example, â€Å"We’re one of the largest groups that donate to Kiva, a microfinance website that makes loans to entrepreneurs in developing countries. We’ve loaned more than $100,000 in the last six months. Books are great, but you can’t have a visceral connection to changing the world, and doing stuff that makes you feel better about being a person. It’s a different kind of work. † (A Signature Move Pays Off For John Green). He is not afraid to interact with others, and continues to strive to improve all of his diverse works one step at a time. Even if he may be perceived as a beginner for someone who has only been writing for a few years, John definitely has a way with words and is more ahead than most. As for how his life has affected his work, his most recent book, The Fault In Our Stars is a perfect example of what one person can do. A girl named Esther, who was a close friend of John’s, passed away with cancer and pushed John to persevere and actually have the ability to put his thoughts to paper in what will be his most successful book overall. His personal life experiences have been able to mold him into what he is able to define within different worlds along with his characters and let his mind wander. Paper Towns is reflected on the area he was raised in, while An Abundance of Katherines correlates with the amount of times John had been dumped in his lifetime. Even Looking for Alaska takes place in the same environment and same school system. All inspiration for Green’s book is derived from certain past experiences, regardless of how subtle the hints are. John Green, a rather creative man who writes books with themes that appear to be correlate with each other. The first theme that can easily be identified in his six books that have been written are all about the stereotypical teenager and the desire for fun. Ignoring risks for adventure is definitely one that teens are able to admit that it is definitely not a fable, but rather a truth. In the following three books, Paper Towns, The Fault in Our Stars, and Looking for Alaska, there is evidence to be provided as to why all of the following five themes are accurate, including this one. Ignoring risks for adventure can be a theme that is explained in his first novel. Looking for Alaska would be a rather brilliant example when realizing that all of the teenagers in this young adult novel are attending a private school which means boundaries. This causes more rebellion with the following, characters, Alaska, Miles, and all of the numerous teenagers that get pulled into the storyline. It is most likely that Alaska is the one who influenced this upon everyone else in the first place, considering the following, â€Å"I have guts, just not where it counts† (Looking for Alaska 95). Alaska is fully aware of all of her capabilities to be able to get away with drinking on campus or pranking other students near the area, but then again, it is definitely not something to be proud of in the first place. If any students are caught while attending this private school they are immediately on trial for expulsion, and everyone has heard fully well of how much of a big deal that is. So they are willing to take all of the risks for that need of some sort of euphoria, or some case to know that they actually are somewhat alive. A private school with so many boundaries can be so limited at times, which can only mean that teenagers are conformed to get through that somehow. The main character, Miles changes dramatically throughout the novel, especially considering that the book is split up into two parts–before and after. Miles shows such a fond attraction to Alaska in the before section, while also showing some extreme respect for her as well. In another discussion between Alaska and Miles, Alaska states, â€Å"†¦ I’m not going to be one of those people who sits around talking about what they’re gonna do. I’m just going to do it† (54). It appears that Alaska enjoys being in the moment of things, rather than have to ponder on everything she is about to do and go through the pros and cons of things. This theme can relate to the majority of all teenagers, especially for one of the main themes that are used throughout John’s books. He has a tendency to find some fascination in teenagers, and he is aware of their situation in all struggles they are forced to confront. A risk for the teenagers in this novel would have to be when they all are fully aware of the consequences that will appear after being caught. Although, the adventure is what makes it such a worthy advocate and even makes getting caught worth it. Unfortunately, Alaska passes in the â€Å"after† section of the novel, which changes any other characters in the show and makes everyone suddenly be aware of their consequences and instantly regret it. A way these characters are explained for ignoring risks for adventure as a theme is by saying, â€Å"While following in the foot steps of Salinger and Knowles, Green ventures beyond identifying the absurd ironies of life and provides a philosophical, religious, and spiritual subtext for his characters and his readers† (Blasingame Jr. . The author is able to provide valuable reasons as to why he is contributing other contexts to the novel as well that can very well correlate with the theme. The Fault in Our Stars is a book involving the means of dealing with young adults who are faced with cancer or even any serious death causing diseases of the sorts. This book could po ssibly have more risks, in terms of staying alive for one–along with being so limited of being able to do, well, anything really. A way this theme is explained mentions the following, â€Å"He’s in remission from the osteosarcoma that took one of his legs. She’s fighting the brown fluid in her lungs caused by tumors. Both know that their time is limited† (The Fault In Our Stars). Throughout the novel there are two main characters with the names of Hazel and Augustus. They never had an easy start with living a healthy life like everyone else, yet they are able to find each other and fall in love. This is such a brilliant opportunity for them, considering they could die at any moment but they are aware that they also only live once. Hazel is extremely fascinated by an author in Sweden, and thanks to Augustus, his wish makes it possible for them to be able to visit the area for a couple of days. The only problem is all of the troubles they have to face with not being able to breathe or walk or function as well as they did back home. It is just an extreme risk to be considering, but that never bothered the two of them. They have already lived a lifestyle that was extremely risky, and they would do anything to get out of that mindset even if it cost them their life, they would at least know what it was like to live. A second theme can actually explain into more depth of the previous theme. This would be rather the consequence of what is to come after ignoring risks for adventure. It is possible, and it is what all people have to go through sometime in their life. Loss, whether it be of family, innocence, or love; it is an extremely hazardous struggle to even consider of being able to get over. John Green is able to portray his characters as going through an extremely life changing event. It can only mean that while all teenagers may feel invincible and omniscient throughout that particular era, all of that happiness and enjoyment must all come to an end in certain cycles. In Paper Towns, Quentin spent a lifetime loving a girl named Margo from afar, however, when she runs away and goes missing for a lengthened amount of time; he goes through an extreme loss and encounters all of the three stages of loss. Margo has been his neighbor all of his life, so losing someone that has been in your life since the very beginning was tragic for him, along with the fact that a good guy who would never take risks was suddenly willing to throw it all on the line to be able to find Margo. This is the main theme for this book, due to the fact that throughout the entire story, Quentin is chasing after Margo in hopes of actually finding her. The way this is all able to connect together mentions, â€Å"Although the plot and characters are significantly different and in many ways more engaging, there is a significant thematic similarity here to Green’s Looking for Alaska (BCCB 2/05), as an ordinary guy seeks to understand a complex, fascinating, yet elusive and troubled girl† (Paper Towns). This summarizes the majority of the novel and what it stands for. It truly explains why it is so important in the first place and why all of John’s novels are related in some way. Quentin goes through this loss and is left to chase after Margo in the end. Compared to Paper Towns, the other two books tend to go through two extreme losses that even readers cannot cope with having to read–a death of a character. It is quite tragic to have to see what themes will occur next after John pulls out a loss of life in the majority of his novels, but he always seems to be creative about it. In Looking for Alaska, Miles loses Alaska in the after section of the book and there is still another half of the book of him being able to cope through his loss. It is an extremely depressing situation, especially since he wanted what he never had, and would never again get the chance to. This leads to the consideration that the teenager would most likely feel like they have failed the particular character who passed away, and it will result in regret. As John puts it into perspective of how Miles feels, he says, â€Å"I know so many last words. But I will never know hers† (Looking for Alaska 142). Miles felt as though this cause of death was all of his fault, but throughout this theme, there are numerous changes in Miles of how he is able to cope through everything. As for The Fault in Our Stars, that is more likely to be a tearjerker, considering Augustus, the one whom Hazel is in love with, passes away towards the end of the novel. It seems rather incredibly difficult to face, but somehow, Hazel was already aware of the consequences. Hazel mentions the rating of her loss of pain as this, â€Å"I was saving my ten. And here it was, the great and terrible ten, slamming me again† (The Fault In Our Stars 263). She was mentioning how badly she was affected by the loss of Augustus and that her own pain that she suffered physically from cancer was practically nothing compared to this. She knew that they had a countdown by means of how long their lifetime would last and luckily he was able to provide her with an infinite amount of infinities that she never considered possible. A way that loss can be described is, â€Å"But he delivers more than a collectible with this exquisitely sad novel about Hazel and Augustus, two teens struggling to keep their terminal-cancer diagnoses from defining who they are† (Corbett). All of the characters that go through a certain loss are able to go through a sudden change, and they only became stronger by means of the plot. There are numerous things that can be noticed when involving likely themes within the works of John Green. He is known to repeat himself throughout numerous occurrences in the following novels: Looking for Alaska, Paper Towns and The Fault in Our Stars. In this theme, a lot of guilt is left to follow through after the conflicts commence. This feeling is most likely to be experienced after a devastating moment occurs that leaves readers more emotionally attached to the book itself. John holds moments where he can captivate the readers with this theme and really cause people to think outside of the box and consider the following; guilt walks among us when the worst has yet to come. The guilt is certainly perceiving in each novel in regards to the significant other that is described throughout the novel. For example, The Fault in Our Stars involves the death of Augustus Waters due to death of cancer. This occurs near the end of the novel but it is most likely for Hazel to feel horrible for what has occurred. Not only does she have to deal with the same troubles herself, but if she had not been so focused on her severities, she feels as though she could have done something different to save him. As Hazel responds, â€Å"It’s hard to explain, but talking to them felt like stabbing and being stabbed† (The Fault in Our Stars 269). It can be interpreted that Hazel can not bring herself to the discouragement that is left of the pain that is still among the parents of Augustus. That unsettling emptiness will always be there to remain and she is not prepared for that herself. On a trip to the hospital earlier in the book, Augustus was there at the same time but he had managed to make it appear as though he was just visiting her. The real dilemma is that he was there for himself because his cancer was worsening. Somehow Augustus managed to hide this from Hazel all along so they could at least for once know what it was like to feel normal. This guilt overtook Hazel leaving her to say the following, â€Å"The only person I really wanted to talk to about Augustus Waters’s death was Augustus Waters† (262). Regardless of the unsettlement, John had a way with describing the feelings of Hazel in all that she is left to deal with. As for Paper Towns, guilt is expressed through the characters Quentin and Margo. Margo runs away early on in the book, leaving Quentin to question whether he should give it all he has to chase after her or not. He even tends to feel as though it is his fault or as though it could have been prevented due to the fact that they are neighbors. The guilt first started settling in when Quentin describes, â€Å"Margo left often enough that there weren’t any Find Margo rallies at school or anything, but we all felt her absence† (Paper Towns 94). Guilt was never anything to be shy of, because the longer Margo surprisingly stays absent and leaves no signs or intentions of ever returning, is when the alarms go off in Quentin’s head that something is truly wrong. This guilt allows Quentin to go on adventures and test his feelings for Margo to go out of his way to connect all of the dots to finally be able to find Margo. The guilt is finally enough to push the good boy Quentin to be adventurous and even miss graduation to be able to feel relief of confronting Margo. In the novel that is saved for last due to the most guilt consuming details, Looking for Alaska leaves Miles in depression. If anything, his choices could have been different if only he had prevented the death of Alaska. Alaska was his everything at the school he was currently attending, and it was all he even truly cared for. She changed his views on so many aspects and she left a mark to remain in his life. Unfortunately, halfway through the book Alaska passes away and leaves Miles behind. Although, the night before is the night that could have changed everything. He finally had his chance with Alaska and they could have been officially together and there were so many questions that had to go unanswered. He even had allowed Alaska to run off campus in the middle of the night while intoxicated to who knows where. That moment will forever be etched in his mind and cause things to replay on repeat. What could have been done differently? It is a guilt that is forever permanent and it will scar him for what could have been. He is even left to feel like a terrible friend for not looking out for her or even intervening between whatever pain Alaska was going through. Of course, silly him for thinking Alaska was stronger than that and could get through basically anything. His first reaction went along the lines of, â€Å"I thought: It’s all my fault. I thought: I don’t feel very good. I thought: I’m going to throw up† (Looking for Alaska 139). Even that first millisecond of within being earshot of hearing the news left negative side effects. His guilt inspired him to not give up in looking for alaska, hence the name of the title is that he assumes she has not really passed on. Assuming that there was a more underlying meaning than that, unfortunately it really was not the case. But this guilt rubs off on Miles and changes the person that is entirely. This theme can reflect how much can be changed when guilt takes place. All of John’s dynamic characters had to go through some sudden change without ever asking for it, but through the consumption of guilt transitions were made. This is how he was able to let his characters grow and develop even more and leave them with the impression that things always can get better in the end. Something can also be added to what creates guilt is what is brought up when involving, â€Å"After Margo disappears, the book turns into a detective story with some riveting moments but a much slower pace to accommodate a few false leads and to develop clues and insights through Q’s interesting exploration and growing comprehension of Leaves and Grass† (Corwin). Relationships are certain short lived experiences throughout the time of being a teenager. As an author, John is able to portray this so called â€Å"teen romance† in the midst of his novels. Not only is it teen romance with simply the thought of it being romantic, but it is familial as well. There are numerous relationships that are known to develop throughout the journey of each novel. Some may grow hindered and falter, while others tend to strengthen and prosper. There are certainly different types of ways family can be expressed of how they are always there for one another, especially to grow. Or in similar cases where such a strong friendship can be as familiar as family and transition into a familial relationship. Then of course there is the romantic relationship where it will either make or break the significant others permanently or become a cherished memory in which they can learn from it. In Looking for Alaska, Miles has parents that are always looking out for him and are willing to provide him with the most self sufficient education. He never had true friends at his previous school, and thanks to this brand new environment he has been placed in he is able to gain friends that will certainly stick with him for the time being. Miles does meet a significant other named Alaska but unfortunately with no proper closure due to her dramatic death in the middle of the novel. As Miles come into conclusion with this sudden thought, â€Å"We need never be hopeless, because we can never be irreparably broken†(Looking for Alaska 220). All of these relationships in the end do strengthen Miles into becoming the person he has wanted to be all along, which is how this theme is able to create character development. As for Paper Towns, Quentin’s parents were always there to lend a helping hand in case of a situation when he would ever need it. When having to deal with the sudden absence of Margo his parents were able to feel empathy and want to comfort him throughout that entire struggle. There is also a relationship that is formed through a prolonged amount of time between the two main characters Quentin and Margo. Since they have been neighbors as children there was a lot of time for feelings to grow within the rest of the novel. Their relationship strengthens with the following words, I stand in this parking lot, realizing that I’ve never been this far from home, and here is this girl I love and cannot follow. I hope this is the hero’s errand, because not following her is the hardest thing I’ve ever done† (Paper Towns 305). The Fault in Our Stars displays the best relationships simply because they are so strong and steady. Hazel’s main friends are practically her parents and they are her everything. They are always there if she ever needs someone to talk to and since she is supplied with cancer hey are constantly making sure she is okay. This proves how sufficient it is when phrasing the state â€Å"blood is thicker than water†. Hazel needs her parents to survive and she is so grateful to be able to have such a strong bond because of this which is something a typical teenager does not obtain the opportunity of achieving. Most relationships with family are hindered thr oughout this time, but there are ways in which it is different for any teenager Green writes about. The relationship Hazel and Augustus have also correlates with that they are well aware of what the other person is going through. Since both of them are affected with cancer and are constantly reminded of the fact that they can die at any given moment, within that given amount of time they had left they were able to find each other. That was really all they needed and John could not have expressed any of these relationships any more perfectly than he had already done. John is able to portray all certain types of relationships as sincere and genuine. He is able to express all types of relationships and how much of an impact they can make on the lives of teenagers. It is normal for a teen to be able to experience all of the consequences and benefits that correlate with this as well. A critic discussing the love between Augustus and Hazel mentions, â€Å"The Fault in Our Stars doesn’t just dispense with fake sentiment; it offers us a powerful shot of the real stuff in its place. The love between Hazel and Gus–the courage and humor with which they manage their grief for each other and for themselves–is as real and intense as any I’ve seen in recent fiction, young adult or otherwise† (Grossman). Their relationship that is created is as real as ever when being depicted upon words. There are struggles and hardships but there is affection and strength alongside these two teens. It is what makes up the rest of the novel due to being two dynamic characters. Another thing that exemplifies their love states, â€Å"He shows us true love — two teenagers helping and accepting each other through the most humiliating physical and emotional ordeals — and it is far more romantic than any sunset on the beach† (Standiford). They are far more romantic than most typical couples and John makes the two stand for something in their own unique way. Both critics are able to comprehend why their love is so important and why it was able to leave an impact on all readers. Coming of age is definitely something that is rather challenging to overcome, especially when regarding the terms of a rebellious and stubborn teenager. It is what all young adults must face at some point in their lives and John uses this theme throughout the endings of his novels to express the self growth of an individual and for self-actualization to occur vividly. In most cases, teens feel as though they are all knowing omniscient individuals who make themselves feel as though they are invincible and adventurous. In Paper Towns, John depicts Margo as an extremely independent and self sufficient teen. He is able to describe the struggles of Margo refusing to confront her troubles with growing up and graduating high school. As for the other character Quentin, John is able to have the readers visualize the changes he goes through and comes into terms with his true potential by the end of Paper Towns. Quentin describes his feelings as such, â€Å"I hope this is the hero’s errand, because not following her is the hardest thing I’ve ever done† (Paper Towns 304). Due to Quentin realizing he no longer needs to chase Margo like he had been doing so in such a careless, silly manner he can now focus on his future and actually grow up for good. Examples of growing up with Looking for Alaska are all surrounded by the ongoing thought processes occurring within the mind of Miles. He had never known what it was like to actually fall in love or even have real friends that were willing to be there for him and hang out with him which had already transitioned the way Miles perceived things as it is. This theme is able to develop more towards the novel by John being able to express the feelings of the protagonist and how Miles was able to learn all of his lessons and overcome them by growing up. For the majority of the novel he had blamed the death of his love Alaska but luckily, his coming of age made him mature and overcome all of his negative situations and placing them into a much more positive perspective. The Fault in Our Stars puts the theme into a whole different perspective. Hazel unfortunately has to live a different lifestyle from everyone else due to the fact that she is more aware of her chances of survival among a crowd of others and that nothing can ever be placed as permanent. When dealing with coming of age, Hazel realizes what she is able to do by stating, â€Å"You of all people know it is possible to live with pain† (The Fault In Our Stars 300). Green is able to consider how different the lives of cancer patients are stricken with. Hazel’s terms of coming to age really meant of how her overall experiences with Augustus changed her as a person in the end. She grew so much more from it and knew what it was like to love someone within her own perspective of infinity. The topic of cancer and coming of age through it is speculated as, â€Å"The subject of cancer, especially in children, is surrounded by a huge–one could almost say tumorous–mass of sentimental rhetoric, and as Gus and Hazel circle each other, they work self-consciously against it, irradiating it with their merciless scorn† (Grossman). Hazel was also able to meet her idol in Sweden which also provided her with insight on how different people can appear to be behind closed doors. A way the whole theme can be justified until the very end of the novel is when the following states, â€Å"As Hazel and Gus often remind each other, the world is not a wish-granting factory. Nevertheless, †a forever within the numbered days† can be found, and as Hazel shows us, maybe that’s all we can ask for† (Standiford). Coming of age just proves how insight can be gained to create wisdom within the individual teenager that John is able to create inside of the world of his characters. Despite the fact that John is currently on the market of being viewed as a new author, he still has so much successful work to make up for his lack of being around for long. All lasting contributions are because of the fact that he is such a new author with a high peak of success that only destines him to be around for so much longer. He is also rather well known on the internet all because of the influence of YouTube which is yet another occupation he is responsible for. YouTubers view his videos consistently and John is one to be willing to contribute to something in the world. His name cannot simply be forgotten, considering the fact that he is already such a fresh footprint marked in the soil among other world famous authors. All of his videos on the internet and novels that he has written so far all tend to convey important messages that we can all hold onto dearly. Whether it be an opportunity of gaining new insight of anything Green feels the need of expressing his opinion for in his videos or even teaching us something new. There is always something that is being contributed to others. That being said, his novels mark the greatest impact of all, reaching out to his fellow eaders. He comforts everyone and lets everyone all know that we are never alone no matter what struggles we are forced to face. There are so many circumstances in which his novels can apply to numerous experiences the novels have been through as well. All of these messages imply that we can relate to something that John has contributed to and whether is it a video or a book, his work is always there to welcome all viewers home. Works Cited Boarders, Rich. â€Å"An Interview: with John Green, Author of Looking for Alaska. † Books. Cart, Michael. â€Å"The Value of Young Adult Literature. Young Adult Library Association. Corbett, Sue. â€Å"Double Identity. † Publishers Weekly 257. 7 (2010): 28-29. Academic Search Premier. Web. 9 Mar. 2012. Green, John. Looking for Alaska. New York: Dutton, 2005. Print. —. Paper Towns. New York: Dutton, 2008. Print. —. The Fault in Our Stars. New York: Dutton, 2012. Print. Grossman, Lev. â€Å"The Topic Of Cancer. † Time 179. 5 (2012): 54. Academic Search Premier. Web. 9 Mar. 2012. Standiford, Natalie. â€Å"The Tenacity Of Hope. † New York Times Book Review (2012): 16. Academic Search Premier. Web. 9 Mar. 2012. â€Å"A Signature Move Pays off for John Green BookPage. BookPage Discover Your Next Great Book! Web. 10 Feb. 2012. â€Å"Author, Author. † Kirkus Reviews 78. 7 (2010): 1 4. Academic Search Premier. Web. 9 Mar. 2012. â€Å"Bloomsbury Publishing Author Biography: John Green John Green. † Bloomsbury. Bloomsbury Publishing Author Biography. Web. 10 Feb. 2012. â€Å"John Green’s Biography. † John Green–Author of Paper Towns, Looking for Alaska and An Abundance of Katherines. Web. 10 Feb. 2012. â€Å"Personal John Green. † Biography. Web. 10 Feb. 2012. â€Å"The Fault In Our Stars. † Kirkus Reviews 80. 2 (2012): 182. Academic Search Premier. Web. 9 Mar. 2012. The Fault In Our Stars. † Publishers Weekly 259. 3 (2012): 57. Academic Search Premier. Web. 9 Mar. 2012. â€Å"Quite in the Grasp. † Quiet in the Grasp of Dusk, and Summer, and Stars. Web. 10 Feb. 2012. John Green: Literary Catalog WorksPublication Year Books: Looking for Alaska2005 An Abundance of Katherines2006 Paper Towns2008 Let It Snow: Three Holiday Romances2008 Will Grayson, Will Grayson2010 The Fault in Our Stars2012 Short stories: The A pproximate Cost of Loving Coraline2006 The Great American Morp2007 Freak the Geek2009 Reasons2011 Other: Thisisnottom2009 Zombicorns2010

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Is Lebanon a Fragile State?

Introduction Middle Eastern nation states came into existence not as a result of naturally-evolving and unique historical, social, or political processes reaching a nexus of cohesion, but rather, they emerged as a manifestation of the fragility of colonial power in the region (Zweiri a. o. 2008: 4). The history of statehood in the Middle East and its establishment by colonial powers has ensured that this remains a fragile and unstable region (Zweiri a. o. 2008: 4).After the collapse of the Ottoman empire the state structure of Lebanon, for example, was instituted to ensure the protection and local hegemony of the Christian Maronites, who were backed by the French in the 1930s and 1940s (Zweiri a. o. 2008: 4). The consequences of this structuring can still be felt today (Zweiri a. o. 2008: 4). Furthermore, external actors continue to provide support – either through foreign aid or their policies – to certain select actors within fragile state systems.Such a process of â €Å"choosing sides† only causes further instability and exacerbates state fragility (Zweiri a. o. 2008: 4). In the contemporary turbulent world of globalization and ever-increasing interdependence across individuals, groups, international organizations and nation-states, the existence of weak/fragile/failed states is more and more seen as a significant concern (Iqbal & Starr 2007: 2). The media, states, and international organizations have seen such states as threats to order and stability in the international system (Iqbal & Starr 2007: 2).Failed states are seen as being associated with a range of problems: economic, social, political, and military (Iqbal & Starr 2007: 3). And they are seen as having a wide range of negative consequences for their own people, their neighbors, their regions, and the global community; â€Å"the chief reason why the world should worry about state failure is that it is contagious† (The Economist, cited in Iqbal & Starr 2007: 3). Is Lebano n a fragile state?Since her independence Lebanon has struggled in keeping up the difficult balance: a small country in a conflict zone, Christians versus Muslims, the civil war, the negative influence of big neighbor Syria, the role of the Palestinians and the refugee problem, the tension with Israel, the murder of former prime minister Rafik Hariri on 14 February 2005 which put the political order of the country in great danger, the emergence of Muslim adicalism and extremism and the rise of Hezbollah, the crumbling of the Christian community and the role of the Lebanese diasporas. To answer this question the political order of Lebanon will be examined from a geo-political and internal perspective. The book Lebanon: Liberation, Conflict and Crisis, is taken as starting point for this paper. It is one of the books from the ‘Middle East in Focus series’, edited by Barry Rubin. The Middle East has become simultaneously the world’s most controversial, crisis-ridden, and yet least-understood region.Taking new perspectives on the area that has undergone the most dramatic changes, the Middle East in Focus series seeks to bring the best, most accurate expertise to bear for understanding the area’s countries, issues, and problems. The resulting books are designed to be balanced, accurate, and comprehensive compendiums of both facts and analysis presented clearly for both experts and the general reader. To answer the central question, the concept of a ‘fragile state’ will first be scrutinized. In the following section the demographics of Lebanon will be reflected upon. The third section outlines the Lebanese state and political system.The fourth section takes into consideration the external influences on the country. The final section depicts the effects of these various factors on the fragility of the Lebanese political system. 1. Conceptualization and determinants of a fragile state The Failed States Index 2010 ranks Lebanon on the 34th place. With a score of 90. 9/120 the country is considered to be â€Å"in danger† (Foreign Policy 2011b). What does â€Å"state failure† actually mean? There is no agreement on what constitutes fragility and no state likes to be labeled as fragile by the international community (Iqbal & Starr: 4, see also Stewart and Brown 2010).Below a set of existing definitions or characterizations of the general phenomenon of state failure will be outlined. It is helpful to begin by looking at existing definitions within the aid community. According to the Fund for Peace â€Å"A state that is failing has several attributes. One of the most common is the loss of physical control of its territory or a monopoly on the legitimate use of force. Other attributes of state failure include the erosion of legitimate authority to make collective decisions, an inability to provide reasonable public services, and the inability to nteract with other states as a full member of the inte rnational community. The 12 social, economic, political and military indicators cover a wide range of elements of the risk of state failure, such as extensive corruption and criminal behavior, inability to collect taxes or otherwise draw on citizen support, large-scale involuntary dislocation of the population, sharp economic decline, group-based inequality, institutionalized persecution or discrimination, severe demographic pressures, brain drain, and environmental decay. States can fail at varying rates through explosion, implosion, erosion, or invasion over different time periods. (Foreign Policy 2011a). The UK’s Department for International Development (DfID) definition of fragile states focuses on service entitlements (Stewart and Brown 2005: 1-2). DfID defines fragile states as occurring â€Å"†¦ where the government cannot or will not deliver core functions to the majority of its people, including the poor. The most important functions of the state for poverty re duction are territorial control, safety and security, capacity to manage public resources, delivery of basic services, and the ability to protect and support the ways in which the poorest people sustain themselves. (DfID 2005: 7). Four broad categories of â€Å"indicative features of fragile states† were provided: state authority for safety and security; effective political power; economic management; administrative capacity to deliver services (Iqball & Starr: 4). Each was categorized in terms of â€Å"capacity† to provide them, and the â€Å"willingness† to provide them (Iqball & Starr: 4). In as much, DfID explicitly notes that it does not restrict its definition of fragility to conflict or immediate post-conflict countries (Stewart and Brown 2005: 2).Non-conflict countries which are failing to ensure service entitlements constitute fragile states under DfID’s definition; similarly, countries in conflict but which are nonetheless providing an acceptabl e level of service entitlements to the majority of the population would not constitute fragile states under DfID’s definition (Stewart and Brown 2005: 2). The definition which the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) employs, is similar but goes beyond a government’s failure to provide comprehensive services and includes the protection of the population’s human rights and security: ‘States are fragile when state tructures lack political will and/or capacity to provide the basic functions needed for poverty reduction, development and to safeguard the security and human rights of their populations’ (Stewart & Brown 2010: 9). Finally, for the World Bank ‘fragile states’ refers to â€Å"countries facing particularly severe development challenges: weak institutional capacity, poor governance, and political instability. Often these countries experience ongoing violence as the residue of past severe conflict.Ongoing ar med conflicts affect three out of four fragile states† (World Bank 2011). From this brief review, we can see that there are considerable areas of overlap in the current use of the term ‘fragile states’ within the development community, but also differences of breadth and emphasis. Here, in this paper, fragile states are to be defined as states that are failing, or at risk of failing, with respect to authority, comprehensive basic service provision, or legitimacy.Authority failures are cases where the state lacks the authority to protect its citizens from violence of various kinds; service failures are cases where the state fails to ensure that all citizens have access to basic services; legitimacy failures occur where the state lacks legitimacy (Stewart & Brown 2010: 10). 2. Demographic dilemmas One of the features that distinguish Lebanon in the region is its social composition, a spectrum of different religious minorities. (Fawaz 2009: 25). A large majority of t he 4. million Lebanese belong to one of three main sects—Sunni Muslims, Shi’a Muslims, and Maronite Christians—with Greek Orthodox, Druze, and over a dozen other groups comprising the rest (Farha 2009: 83). Demographic and political representations never fully overlapped in the course of Lebanon’s history (Farha 2009: 83). Recurrent phases of incongruity between demographic and political balances of power have been a major driving force in all cycles of conflict (Farha 2009: 83). â€Å"Lebanon’s modern history has been punctuated by periodic outbreaks of fratricidal violence, followed by political compromises that recalibrated the istribution of power and privilege among the major confessional communities† (Farha 2009:83). Let’s have a closer look at the demographics of Lebanon. In Lebanon we find higher Muslims birthrates (Farha 2009: 87). Fertility favors the Shi’a of Lebanon in particular and the Muslims in general (Raphaeli 2009: 110). However, a projection based on fertility rates, ignores the lower infant and child mortality rates among Christians, which have counterbalanced higher Muslim birthrates to some extent (Farha 2009: 87).Some doubt should always be cast on the accuracy of projected estimates with regard to the precise size of the resident population as the last census took place in 1932. Different actors present different numbers for different political reasons (Farha 2009). Emigration is a big issue; there are more Lebanese living abroad than Lebanese-born living inside the country. A disproportionately high rate of Christian emigration took place from the mid-nineteenth- through the twentieth century, particularly during and after eruptions of civil strife in 1860, 1914–1918, and 1975–1990 (Farha 2009: 86). Over 900,000 Lebanese emigrated between the outbreak of civil war in 1975 and 2001† (Farha 2009: 86). By 2006, the size of the Christian community was reduced to 3 0 percent of the total Lebanese population (Raphaeli 2009: 110). However it is said that these recent immigrants were not only Christians, but also Muslims (Farha 2009: 86). It is debated whether the Christian Lebanese people worldwide outnumber the Muslim Lebanese. Against the notion that descendants of Lebanese Christians comprise the overwhelming majority of the Lebanese in the diaspora, Farha (2009: 86) argues that emigration is equally sought By Muslims and Christians.Moreover, a 2006 study conducted by the Lebanese Emigration Research Center at NDU found that the percentage departure rates within each confession were almost equal (Farha 2009: 86). This is politically relevant as MP Nimtallah Abi Nasr hopes to expand the prospective pool of expatriate Christian voters with his campaign for a (re)naturalization of second and third-generation Lebanese abroad (Farha 2009: 87). Also â€Å"Hezbollah has actively encouraged first-generation Shi’a emigrants to register their c hildren as citizens for much the same reason (Farha 2009: 87)†.Lebanon’s current power sharing covenant is far out of step with demographic realities (Farha 2009: 88). â€Å"Even the most conservative statistical conjectures leave Lebanese Muslims significantly underrepresented in the parliament and the council of ministers, an incongruity that will grow in the years ahead† (Farha 2009: 88). A revision of the 1989 Ta’if agreement, which was the basis for ending the decades-long Lebanese civil war, and in which the Christians gave up their majority whereby granting Muslims a true partnership in the political process, has been discussed though.However, up till now we see that the Ta’if agreement is being preserved not amended. Amending the Ta’if will not serve the interests of the Christians considering the population-increase of non-Christians. In view of the growing disequilibrium between demographic and political representation in Lebanon, a recalibration of the Ta’if power-sharing formula along the lines of a tripartite division of power (muthalatha) among Christians, Sunnis, and Shi’a is all but inevitable in the coming years (Farha 2009: 90).While a tripartite division of power may not correspond precisely with Lebanon’s demographic balance, it is the closest possible approximation in the absence of a census and the only recalibration formula that could conceivably win the support of all three (Farha 2009: 90). â€Å"So long as no one sect compromises a demographic majority few Lebanese would feel themselves egregiously underrepresented by a tripartite division of power† (Farha 2009: 90).However, while proposals to this effect have circulated for over two decades a sweeping revision of the Constitution is highly unlikely in the short term (Farha 2009: 90). â€Å"Indeed, the main leaders of both March 14 and the opposition have explicitly rejected Sunni-Shi’a-Christian tripartism a s an alternative to Muslim-Christian parity—a position that perhaps has less to do with innate preferences than with the political exigencies of appealing to a deeply divided and anxious Christian community† (Farha 2009: 90).Ideally, Lebanon should of course be reconfigured on a non-confessional basis. A political system is needed which is not based on the (numerical) strength of religious communities. â€Å"Although, deconfessionalization may be a better cure for Lebanon’s ailments in principle, in practice those who hold positions of power under the sectarian system are not likely to promulgate its abrogation† (Farha 2009: 90) . 3. The dilemmas of the Lebanese political system and state 3. The state â€Å"In Lebanon there is controversy over the nature of the state, as well as over national identity† (El-Khazer 2004: 6). There is a problem of defining the boundaries of the state and, more important, of the nation (El-Khazen 2004: 6). Lebanon is a multi-communal state which raises the question of legitimacy, and, by extension, the effectiveness of the political system in situations of crisis (El-Khazen 2004: 6). We see loyalties transcending state boundaries.El-Khazen (2004: 8) argues that several, interpretations explaining the weakness of the Lebanese state, and later the causes of its collapse in the mid-1970s such as the growing imbalance between loads and capabilities on the political system, the divisive forces inherent in Lebanon’s political system, increasing socio-economic inequalities along sectarian, class and regional lines or government inefficiency, nepotism and corruption, are of limited explanatory value, as none of these problems where unique to Lebanon. While Lebanon shares broad characteristic with other heterogeneous societies, it has particular features of its own† (El-Khazen 2004: 32).First Lebanon has a large number of communities that are politically active, some of whom have distinctly co mmunal agenda’s; second, in Lebanon there is no numerically dominant group which constitutes 60 or 70 percent of the total population (furthermore, the differences in the size of the three major groups are relatively small, which limits political significance); third is the changing demographic balance in Lebanon; fourth, communal transformations in Lebanon have not reached a significant degree of maturity, moreover, in Lebanon communal development has been in constant flux and disputes have changed partly because of internal politics and partly because of the unstable regional situation which has deeply affected Lebanon; fifth, what sets Lebanon apart from other divided societies is the regional order with which it has had to interact, the Middle East in one of the most unstable regional orders in the post-Second World War international system (El-Khazen 2004: 32).Where Lebanon’s problems ultimately differ according to El-Khazen (2004: 10) is in the nature and scope o f externally-generated problems originating mainly from its regional order – specifically the Arab state system and post-1967 PLO. â€Å"Lebanon’s confessional political system (†¦) functioned relatively well for over three decades. It collapsed when it was subjected to pressure, particularly externally-generated pressure, which the system could not contain while preserving its open character and the plural nature of society† (El-Kahzen 2004:32). El-Khazen (2004: 6) suggests three phases which characterize the breakdown of the state in Lebanon: first the erosion and eventual loss of power; second, the political paralysis and power vacuum; third, the collapse of state institutions and the eruption of violence. 3. 2 The political systemEver since it attained independence from the French in 1943, Lebanon’s political system has been based on the National Charter (al-mithaq al-watani)—an unwritten but enforced pact that recognizes the division of t he country into religious communities (Raphaeli 2009: 110). According to the 1943 National Pact between sectarian leaders, the president would be a Maronite; the prime minister a Sunni; and the parliamentary speaker a Shi’a (Harris 2009: 16). The charter’s distribution of power among the various religious communities reflects the fact that in the 1940s, Christians represented 60 percent of the population and the various Muslim communities occupied the remaining 40 percent (Raphaeli 2009: 110).This was adjusted to an even split in 1989. Unstable multisectarian factions rather than ideological parties have dominated the legislature (Harris 2009: 17). The Lebanese political system has some positives to it. First, Lebanon is one of the very few Middle Eastern countries where the government arises from parliament (Harris 2009: 17). Second, the Lebanese system has been the political framework for a dynamic public pluralism unheard of anywhere else in the Arab world (Harris 2 009: 17). Even the intimidation from 1990 to 2005 by the Damascus-directed security apparatus did not destroy a freewheeling civil society and an assertive media (Harris 2009: 17).Third, the reemergence of â€Å"confessional democracy† in May 2005, with Syria’s enforced military withdrawal and the first free elections since 1972, produced a parliamentary balance close to the probable numerical weight of major political forces (Harris 2009: 17). Still, Lebanon’s political system has many deficiencies. Between 1975 and 2005, it effectively ceased to function, with 15 years of violent breakdown followed by 15 years of manipulative Syrian hegemony—a hegemony approved by the West until about 2000 (Harris 2009: 17). Even when operating, the system has never reconciled representation of communities with representation of individual citizens (Harris 2009: 17). Parliamentary deputies are elected under sectarian labels at the same time as they are constitutionally bound to act for the citizenry regardless of sect (Harris 2009: 17).The allocation of parliamentary seats has become out of line with the numerical weighting of the communities (Harris 2009: 17). Only an internationally supervised census, which no one wants, can resolve the issue (Harris 2009: 17). Every community has its demographic mythology, which they do not want punctured (Harris 2009: 17). The Shi’a community has increased from one-fifth of the population in 1932 to probably around one-third today. Even under the 1989 adjustment, it gets 27 seats out of 128 when it should have at least 40 (Harris 2009: 17). 4. Regionally powered dilemmas â€Å"The external connections of Lebanon’s communal blocs involve antagonists in Middle Eastern disputes† (Harris 2009: 10).The Maronite Catholics have longstanding relations with the west; Lebanon’s Shi’a provided religious scholars who assisted the conversion of Iranians to Twelver Shi’ism in the si xteenth century, Lebanese Sunni affinities is more with Saudi-Arabia (Harris 2009: 10). The extension of Lebanon’s differences reach[es] into the divide between Sunni Arab states and Shi’a Iran and into the standoff between the United States, France, and Saudi Arabia on one hand and Syria and Iran on the other. â€Å"In this sense, Lebanon really is the cockpit of the Middle East† (Harris 2009: 10). As we shall see it is in Syrian, Israeli and Iran’s interest to see a high degree of conflict. 4. 1 Syria Due to its geography and history, Lebanon always has to deal with Syria, whose regime had always considered it as an ‘illegitimate political entity’ that has to be dominated.According to Harris (2009: 1) â€Å"Lebanon is therefore the target of all the ambitions and phobias of the Syrian dictatorship, which cannot function as an Arab power without commanding the Lebanese†. Lebanon’s multicommunal history makes for problems of coh erence in modern Lebanese politics. â€Å"Communal suspicion—today principally on a Sunni-Shi’a fault line—produces paralysis that saps Lebanon’s viability and pluralist foundations. This is fine for a Syrian Ba’thist regime that denies there is anything significant about the Lebanese and their history, despises pluralism, and regards restored command of Lebanon as vital to its own viability as the â€Å"beating heart† of Arabism† (Harris 2009: 20). Syria and its Lebanese allies paralyzed the Lebanese state, declaring the government illegitimate, refusing to allow parliament to meet, and blocking the election of a Lebanese president after Emile Lahoud finally left office in November 2007. Syrian military intelligence manipulated so-called al-Qa’ida elements in a Palestinian refugee camp in northern Lebanon—the Fath al-Islam group—to destabilize Lebanon, debilitate its army, and disrupt Lebanon’s Sunni commu nity† (Harris 2009: 19). â€Å"The problem is that the Syrian ruling clique will not leave Lebanon alone. It is determined on reassertion through its allies, and its victory will be the end of any decent Lebanon. Lebanese pluralism cannot coexist with Bashar al-Asad’s regime† (Harris 2009: 22).The 2005 murder of Rafik Hariri started a period of exceptional domestic political turbulence and regional tensions, it led to institutional paralysis (ICG 2010: i). Initially experts accused Damascus. It is assumed that it is part of a Syrian plot to destabilize the country. Officially no one knows who carried out the attack and who was behind it. What can be said is that the assassination of Hariri opened doors for many political actors to get into the Lebanese and Arab political scene. 4. 2 Israel â€Å"Throughout the relatively short history of their existence as modern states, Israel’s and Lebanon’s mutual border has proven to be largely disadvantageous to both countries† (Spyer 2009: 195).For Lebanon, Israel’s establishment was the primary cause for the eventual arrival of the Palestinian national movement to within its borders in 1970 (Spyer 2009: 195). This, in turn, was a key factor in precipitating the country’s ruinous civil war, the Israel-PLO war on Lebanese soil in 1982, the partial collapse of Lebanese sovereignty after the Syrian entry in 1990, and the partial Israeli occupation of southern Lebanon until 2000 (Spyer 2009: 195). The series of events that would lead to Israel’s involvement in Lebanon began with the Palestinian national movement in Lebanon. (Spyer 2009: 198). â€Å"Beirut became the international center of focus for the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) and the place of residence of its senior leadership† (Spyer 2009: 198).As a result, Lebanon became one of the theatres in which the conflict between Israelis and Palestinians would be played out (Spyer 2009:198). Civ il order broke down in Lebanon in 1975, in a civil war in which the Palestinians played a central role. Contacts between Israel and prominent Lebanese Maronite politicians had been developing since the mid-1970s against the background of the breakdown of civil order in Lebanon and the central role of the PLO in the Muslim/ leftist coalition against which the Maronites were fighting (Spyer 2009: 199). Over time, Bashir Gemayel, most prominent among anti- Syrian Maronite leaders at the time, became the main Maronite contact for the Israelis (Spyer 2009: 199). Throughout, Bashir’s purpose was to encourage Israel to intervene against the Syrian garrison forces in Lebanon† (Spyer 2009: 199). The 1982 Lebanon War was very much the brainchild of Menachem Begin, the Israeli prime minister from 1977 till 1983 and Ariel Sharon the Israeli Minister of Defense during the war (Spyer 2009: 202). An anti-Gemayel, anti-Israel, anti-U. S. , and pro-Syrian alignment was now emerging as t he key political force in the country (Spyer 2009: 203). A number of inflammatory incidents deriving from Israel’s ignorance of the sensibilities of Shi’a Muslims contributed to the deterioration of the situation (Spyer 2009: 203). In 1985 Israeli forces occupied a strip of territory in southern Lebanon.A â€Å"security zone† close to the Israeli border, which was maintained in cooperation with the SLA (Spyer 2009: 204). Israel’s unilateral withdrawal from the security zone took place in 2000, thus ending the 18-year period of Israeli military involvement on Lebanese soil (Spyer 2009: 205). The Second Lebanon War which began on July 12, 2006 was one between Hezbollah and Israel. Resolution 1701, which ended the fighting, changed the situation in southern Lebanon to Israel’s advantage, in that it ended the de facto Hezbollah domination of the southern border area that had pertained since the unilateral Israeli withdrawal in May 2000 (Spyer 2009: 208 ). Israel currently has no dealings with any of the major political actors within Lebanon.However, while large-scale Israeli adventures to make alliance with political forces within Lebanon are part of the past, the weakness of the Lebanese state and central authority remain very much part of the present. One of the results of this weakness, which is itself a product of the country’s divided sectarian makeup, is its vulnerability to outside penetration, and therefore its oft-repeated, luckless fate as the launching ground for attacks by various forces (the PLO, Syria, now Iran and Hizballah) against Israel, its southern neighbor. This fact remains the core reality behind Israel’s relations with Lebanon. It is unlikely that the final word in this story has been written. 4. 3 Iran Lebanon’s Shi’a community resides in the heart of the largely Sunni Arab world and on the frontline with Israel; therefore, Lebanon’s Shi’a are of double interest to their coreligionists in revolutionary Shi’a Iran† (Harris 2009: 10). â€Å"Hezbollah was and remains a militant Khomeinist Islamist movement that adheres to Khomeini’s doctrine of velayet-e-faqih, rule by a cleric in an Islamist state. Its ties to Iran are organic, multifaceted, and complex† (Badran 2009: 47). In order to understand Hezbollah’s origins properly, one must remember that the major force pushing for its establishment was the Islamic regime in Iran, as it worked to unite the Shi’a factions and forces operating in Lebanon (Zisser 2009: 158). Iran wanted everyone to work together under the Hezbollah framework (Zisser 2009: 158).The crisis situation that developed from the early 1970s onward became the breeding ground for a process of religious radicalization (Zisser 2009: 158). In these circumstances, Musa al-Sadr, a religious figure of Iranian origin, appeared and gained a position of great influence and power in the Shi’a community (Zisser 2009: 158). Hezbollah’s dilemma has to do with its identity, which contains a tension built into its very origins and being (Zisser 2009: 156). How is this tension—between the organization’s Lebanese-Shi’a identity on the one hand and its Islamic-revolutionary identity, its commitments to Iran, and its conception of the holy jihad on the other—to be resolved? The balance ow seems to be turning in favor of the Islamic-revolutionary identity, which also means turning in favor of Tehran (Zisser 2009: 156). There is no doubt that the war and its aftermath revealed as never before, and against the desire and interests of Hezbollah, the fact that the organization is the handiwork of Tehran, if not simply its instrument. Hezbollah has also been exposed as an organization dedicated to and active in achieving radical and far-reaching aims (Zisser 2009: 156-157). Its aim in the short term is to gain dominance over Lebanon and in the long te rm to turn that country into a Shi’a-dominated state ruled by Islamic law and closely linked to Iran (Zisser 2009: 157).From the mid- 1980s the organization began (with generous Iranian help) to establish a network of social and welfare services that would draw the support of the Shi’a community and provide it with an alternative to the services provided by the Lebanese state, or, to be more precise, to the benefits and aid the state should have provided for this population and did not (Zisser 2009: 159). With the build-up of this social infrastructure, the movement contributed to undermining the position of the Lebanese government. By the end of the 1980s the Iranian-sponsored Hezbollah grew in popularity as a force combining opposition to Israeli occupation with a wider Shi’a Islamist ideology implacably opposed to Israel’s existence and to the West (Sper 2009: 204).Hezbollah’s advance to the international boundary in southern Lebanon made it eve n more useful to its Iranian and Syrian patrons as a deterrent force in case of threats from Israel or the United States. It seemed to have it within its power to take over Lebanon—or at least those parts of the country inhabited by Shi’a—and to establish an Islamic order there on the Iranian model (Harris 2009: 71). As a result of the Iranian-Syrian agreement after the Ta’if Accord ended the Lebanese war, Hezbollah was the only militia to be excluded from handing over its weapons under the pretext that it was a â€Å"resistance movement† fighting Israeli occupation rather than a militia (Badran 2009: 47). This was a big mistake as it induces fragility.Since the Israeli withdrawal in 2000 and more so after the Syrian withdrawal in 2005, the fate of Hezbollah’s armed status (which has grown massively and developed doctrinally, ironically, after the Israeli withdrawal) is the central issue in Lebanon today (Badran 2009: 47). Hezbollah had pres ented itself as the â€Å"defender of Lebanon† but proved to be its ruination since it brought so much destruction down upon the heads of its people (Zisser 2009: 166). After the 2006 war Hezbollah had difficulty maintaining the ambiguity about its identity (Zisser 2009: 166). In particular, the contrasts and contradictions between the organization’s Lebanese identity and its loyalty to Iran, on the one hand, and its Islamic-revolutionary identity with its commitments to Iran, on the other, were exposed (Zisser 2009: 173).Hezbollah had tried to bridge or obscure these troublesome conflicting elements over the years (Zisser 2009: 173). Yet in the moment of truth it became clear that it was not prepared to renounce its partially hidden agenda—that is, its loyalty to Iran and the ideas of radical Islam and jihad (Zisser 2009: 173). Hezbollah was now perceived more and more as a Shi’a organization serving the interests of Iran, as well as being an organizatio n sinking deeper and deeper into the quicksand of Lebanese politics (Zisser 2009: 166). It dragged Lebanon into a bloody battle with Israel, whose price was paid, first and foremost, by the Shi’a of Lebanon but also by many other Lebanese from other ethnic communities (Zisser 2009: 173).It seems that the organization, inspired and helped by Iran, its ally and patron, is more committed than ever to continue the long and unremitting struggle it began when it was first established in the early 1980s, with the ultimate aim of taking power in Lebanon (Zisser 2009: 174). The possibility that Hezbollah might succeed in its mission has become more realistic, thanks to the demographic processes taking place in Lebanon. Hezbollah is therefore a major destabilizing factor (Zisser 2009: 175). 5. Lebanon: a conflict-affected fragile state When Lebanon gained independence in 1941, the country found itself at a loss without the French hierarchy to maintain internal control and order. A new class of political elites, with little experience, was forced to discover ways to deal with the diversity of Lebanese society. It was with this in mind that the National Pact of 1943 was crafted.The Pact was based on the census of 1932, and sought to address divisions among the Lebanese, but in the end, it would only serve to deepen them. In the years after the Arab-Israeli War, the Palestinian-Israeli conflict landed on Lebanon’s doorstep with the arrival of Palestinian commandos. Many Palestinian refugees, as well as militants, settled in camps in southern Lebanon, the legacy of which continues to influence Lebanese society. The migration of Shi’a to the capital, which was triggered by Israeli raids, heightened the already volatile mix of interests within the Lebanese political sphere. Ignored throughout the mandate years, the introduction of the confessional system saw the Shi’a fight for an equal voice alongside the Sunnis, Druze, and Maronites.As Lebanese s ociety became increasingly divided, individual sectarian groups began to arm themselves militarily through their own militia organizations. Today, these militias still play a key role within the Lebanese security sphere. Ultimately, the Palestinian presence within Lebanon acted as a trigger to the outbreak of civil war among all Lebanese factions. Although Palestinian militants were the original cause of the war, it was sectarian interest and division that sustained the conflict well into the following decade. The ceasefire agreement reached by Syria and the PLO in 1976 sealed Syrian dominance within Lebanon and has had a lasting impact on the country well into the early 2000s.Nonetheless, the agreement did little to improve sectarian division and militia violence on the ground. The decades following the 1982 Israeli War continued to be marred by sectarian conflict and an international tug of war for Lebanon. Tensions along the Lebanese-Israeli border have continued well into the pr esent day, in light of suspicions that Hezbollah is rearming for any future conflict. Ultimately, the greatest consequence of the summer war can be understood in terms of power within Lebanon. Indeed, the summer 2006 war marked the advent of power for Hezbollah, both within Lebanon and throughout the region. Considering it is a non-state actor, and that Lebanese President Fouad Siniora was in power, Hezbollah acted with state authority.This conflict reopened old wounds within Lebanese society, seeing as Hezbollah feels vindicated by the 2006 conflict and now seeks full recognition of its power. Moreover, state fragility is further deepened in a context where conflict has led to the intervention of external actors, each of whom have chosen sides in a dispute whose political and strategic consequences extend well beyond Lebanon. The current dynamics of fragile state security in Lebanon are not being dictated by Lebanese interests, but rather by the broader external policy aims of fore ign parties such as Syria, Israel, and Iran. This situation is particularly problematic for the prospects of long-term and lasting stability within Lebanon.Although sectarian politics have been an influential reality since Lebanon became a fully independent state in 1941, they have taken on a new shape in an environment defined by the post 9/11 context and by three main evolutions, namely the 2005 assassination of former Lebanese President Rafik Hariri, the 2005 withdrawal of Syrian military forces, and Hezbollah’s rise to power in Lebanon. Conclusion The central question throughout this paper has been whether Lebanon is a fragile state or not. The precarious political order of Lebanon has illustrated the distinctiveness of the country. Although colonial rule is not unique to the Lebanon, its colonial past, combined with the evolution of politics, economics, and society in the region, as well as the role played by external actors, molds a very specific set of circumstances vi s-a-vis state security that translates into an expression of fragile state security very specific to the region. The Lebanese State has always been weak.Politicians have generally sought to serve interests of their constituencies instead of the national interest. This factor has its roots in the National Pact that limited the authority of the state to maximize the autonomy of sectarian groups. As a result, Lebanese citizens feel loyalty towards their community instead of towards the country. Lebanon’s political system erodes the authority of the state by fuelling clientelism. Foreign protection of or influence on each community further undermines this authority. Moreover, Lebanon’s political system makes the state vulnerable to any stifled sense of frustration or injustice or dispossession felt by any community. Consequently, patronage networks swiftly re-emerged.In all, Lebanon’s political system is based upon the principle that the State should interfere in so ciety as little as possible. The resulting weakness of state institutions has made Lebanon vulnerable to infringements of its domestic, interdependence and sovereignty. The rise of Hezbollah has made this clear. In section 1, fragile states were defined as states that are failing, or at risk of failing, with respect to authority, comprehensive basic service provision, or legitimacy. In conclusion, in this sense, Lebanon â€Å"passed† on all three domains. Lebanon fails to protect its citizens as there is significant organized political violence; civil war’s.Also there is periodic political or communal violence causing deaths and destruction. Although the authority of the state is being undermined, it does not go as far as to say that the state authority (at present) does not extend to a significant proportion of the country. Hezbollah made sure to illustrate the inadequate delivery of services by the state. Also, in Lebanon the question of legitimacy is raised, inheren t in being a multi-communal state. â€Å"Lebanon, from all observable indicators, embodies the phenomenon of schism in the political and cultural realms (†¦) it is a society without foundation, fragile, divided, disjointed and torn† (Dr.Khalaf, cited in Raphaeli 2009: 109). Bibliography – Badran, T. (2009) ‘Lebanon’s militia wars’, in: Rubin (ed), Lebanon: Liberation, Conflict and Crisis. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 35-62. – DfID (2005) Why we need to work more effectively in fragile states . Department for International Development. – El-Khazen, F. (2000) The breakdown of the state in Lebanon, 1967-76. London : I. B. Tauris & Co Ltd – Farha, M. (2009) ‘Demographic Dilemma’s’, in: B. Rubin (ed), Lebanon: Liberation, Conflict and Crisis. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 83-99. – Foreign Policy (2011a) FAQ & Methodology, Foreign policy. Online at: http://www. foreignpolicy. om/articles/2009/06/22/200 9_failed_states_index_faq_methodology(retrieved 28 February 2011). – Foreign Policy (2011b) The Failed States Index 2010, Foreign policy. Online at: http://www. foreignpolicy. com/articles/2010/06/21/2010_failed_states_index_interactive_map_and_rankings (retrieved 28 February 2011). – Harris, W. (2009) ‘Lebanon’s Roller Coaster Ride’, in: B. Rubin (ed), Lebanon: Liberation, Conflict and Crisis. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 63-82. – ICG (2010) Lebanon’s Politics: The Sunni Community and Hariri’s Future Current, Middle East Report, N °96. – Iqbal, Z. and H. Starr (2007) State Failure: Conceptualization and Determinants. Working paper, University of South

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Paraphrase Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 5

Paraphrase - Essay Example This led to formation of professional organizations like the National Safety Council that made positive contributions to safety at the work place. Based on a postulate that accidents are psychologically triggered and that they could be prevented, research initiatives established that effective management and efficient procedures through employee training and awareness is an important factors towards reducing accident cases and claims. Developments after the year 1930 such reduced accidents; courts approach to settling compensation disputes and setbacks to the psychological assumption led to the collapse of the investigative era. Accident and injury prevention are two distinct occurrences whose difference can be understood from their scope, objectives and timing factors. While accident prevention concentrates on the entire work environment and possible risks, injury prevention lays preference on people within the work environment. Preventing an accident therefore considers both the environment and the involved people while preventing injury focuses on people’s risks. Even though injury prevention can be done after an accident, both injury prevention and accident prevention improves workplace safety through identification and control of possible risks at the

Friday, September 27, 2019

The Repositioning of American Public Administration Article Summary Essay

The Repositioning of American Public Administration Article Summary - Essay Example This is in response to the new social, economic, and political conditions primarily caused by the increasing irrelevance of national or state boundaries as well as the gradual reduction of state dominance over public affairs. At the basis of such observation is the perspective that public administration is in a continuous process of distancing from â€Å"theories and concepts of the clash of interests, of electoral and interest group competition, of games, and of winners and losers† (Frederickson, 1999, p.702). Instead it is on the path of embracing concepts of â€Å"cooperation, networking, governance, and institution building and maintenance.† This is how Frederickson observes and predicts the current trend of repositioning of American public administration. The main external condition that prompts the said repositioning is that the state has lost much of its power over the subjects and over other institutions in society. Apparently, it has become disarticulated and fragmented. This means that the boundaries between nations are being made inconsequential as trading and economic ties have become the principal basis of international relations instead of agreements on territorial jurisdictions and other political aspects. The barriers between the public and the government, with the usual setup that the latter has administrative control over the former, are also in the process of elimination. Public administration is now also the concern of non-government organizations and other institutions that are not in any way related to the government. A number of these changes may have been mere responses to new situations without the benefit of deeper scrutiny and eventual legislation. However, in the US, the process of repositioning is also gradual ly being enshrined through the creation of laws regarding such changes. The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 is one

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Concept of Self Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Concept of Self - Essay Example The self develops out of a conversation, by using symbols. Mead was responsible for developing the concept of symbolic interaction, the most important factor in human social relationships. Symbolic interaction consists of interpretation, that is, comprehension of the meaning of other person's actions. The foundation of cooperation is social relations and it relies on the communication process in which meanings are conveyed. Non-symbolic interactions are those in which partners respond to each other's actions directly. Mead emphasized that the interactions and even cooperation, as seen in animals is purely biological. As against this, humans can interpret and mutually define their actions, rather than just reacting to them. In Mead's opinion, human thought, experience and conduct are essentially social. Human beings interact with each other in terms of symbols; the most important of which are contained in language. Without symbols, humans will not interact and therefore no human society. Mead was of the opinion that animals respond through gestures, but their interactions are unconscious and non-rational. Only human beings are capable of abstract thinking. The human mind can have inner conversation and adopt an attitude towards oneself. Human cognition has a symbolic nature. Animals, according to Mead, do not possess this ability, for they do not possess self. AccoAccording to Mead, self distinguishes humans from the world of nature. He distinguished two aspects of self: subjective I and objective Me. I is responsible for interpretative reactions towards social stimuli. This aspect is responsible for creativity, spontaneity, and unpredictability at times. I is the basis of self-image. The me aspect is the social self, developed in accordance with other people's views and expectations. This social fact is what separates human beings from animals. Views of H.Blumer - The Interacting Self Blumer opined that human interaction is influenced by symbols, interpretation, or addition of significance to other humans' actions. He maintained that symbolic interaction is typically human field of operation. He said that the mental and cognitive aspect of constructing meanings excludes both interaction between human and nonhuman animals and interaction between nonhuman animals themselves. According to Blumer, a human being can be an object of his own action. He can act toward himself and guide himself toward others on the basis of the object he is to himself. This process involves a selection of the objects considered relevant for the individual and an appropriate handling of the meanings of those objects. As against Mead, Blumer stresses on the I side of the self. This I is built socially, as it is a result

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

The Capture of Jerusalem by Saladin Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

The Capture of Jerusalem by Saladin - Essay Example The rival troops rumbled over Jerusalem because there was a lot of tension and the Holy City was weakened. The Templar and Hospitaler Knights were continuously at logger heads. The battle of Hattin decimated the soldiers and Knight of the Latin States. On 2nd October 1187, Saladin captured the Holy city. The Muslims clambered up and removed the crosses that had been mounted by the Crusaders on the Cupola of the Dome of the Rock. Islam controlled Jerusalem from that day until the 20th century. Challiton, who was a cruel Crusader Is known to have massacred Muslim pilgrims because they steps on his turf. This seems to have instigated Saladin and his army to capture Jerusalem in their vow to revenge the action of Challiton. Additionally, at that time Jerusalem had difficulties with their leadership and this made them predisposed to enemy attack. Saladin and his army took over the Holy Land. The significance of Jerusalem in Muslim lore increased over the years. Saladin had sworn that he would stop killing the Christians after they had taken over the city. This story is of much significance at it gives a history of where the Muslims and the Christians started to have disputes each other. This is a conflict that is still taking place up to date. This story gives as the real facts of what events took place before Saladin, a Muslim leader took over Jerusalem .If we compare him to Challiton, the Crusader’s leader we can deduce that Saladin was a noble man that stood to his words. His courage, moderation and justice were character traits that seemed to have earned him lasting respect. This reading gives a history of a famous leader, Saladin in relation to the fall of Jerusalem. I believe that Saladin had every right to take over Jerusalem as it was being managed by wicked leaders. The part I enjoyed most was the character displayed by Saladin. His adherence to the ideal of Justice and magnanimity as well as his leadership skills will be

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Social Psychology Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Social Psychology Paper - Essay Example We are to define the terms, map the terms to excerpts from the examples, and then correlate the reasons we selected those excerpts to those definitions. Terms to define and understand Confirmation Bias Balez (2008) defines confirmation bias as something that occurs when people project their expectations on one another and the other reacts in the way that person is projecting. This is commonly referred to as the "Pygmalion effect" (Overview section, para. 1). If one expects the best from another that is what one will receive. Conversely, if one expects the worst treatment, this is what one will receive. In the second scenario it was stated, â€Å"Though disappointed, he tried to hide it because at least she seemed to care for the students and it wasn’t really her fault that so many students showed up at the same time† (Example 2, 2011). Because Jonathan believed the best in Dr. Jones, he looked for ways to defend her behavior in cutting the advising sessions short. Addit ionally, Jonathan thought, â€Å"at least she seemed to care for the students† and â€Å"Dr. Jones was impressed with Jonathan’s maturity† (Example 2, 2011). External Locus of Control A person's perception of the source of his or her fate is termed locus of control. Those with an internal locus of control believe they are in control of their destiny or what may or may not occur in their environment. Treven & Treven (2011) describe those guided by an external locus of control as being guided by something outside him or herself. Externals faced with a stressor are more likely to be stressed, passive, and defensive. â€Å"She tried to disguise her disappointment and anger because her advisor cared too little for his students to allow enough time to meet every student for the time they needed† (Example 1, 2011). If Jessica had given much thought to the timing of their sessions, late in the term, a long wait, she may have realized that there would be concerns with the time frame. Both students were affected by the timing of the session being shortened and in being disappointed. However, Jessica was affected from an external standpoint and became angry and appeared â€Å"rude and incompetent† to her advisor (Example 1, 2011). Fundamental Attribution Error Per (2011), the ability humans have to attribute the cause of events to one thing or another exists because humans have a need to explain the world, in their own mind and to those around them. This helps each of us to feel like we have some sense of control. When explaining behavior, it can affect the standing of people within a group. When another person has erred, we will often use internal attribution, saying it is due to personality factors. When we have erred, we will more likely use external attribution, attributing causes to situational factors rather than blaming ourselves. Antello, Prilipko, & Sheridan-Pereira (2010) define fundamental attribution error aaccording to Heider from 1958 as "observers attribute characteristics to actors on the basis of the actor's behavior" (Literature Review, para. 4). â€Å"Upon entering the room he was disappointed to hear Dr. Jones say she was running late with his student meetings and would have to get done in 10 minutes and there was only time for last minute checks of her schedule† (Example 1, 2011). â€Å"Because her advisor cared too little for his students† (Example 1, 2011). Jessica refused to take responsibility for her situation by getting angry. She

Monday, September 23, 2019

Royal Mail Literature Review Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Royal Mail Literature Review - Essay Example This paper covers the theoretical concepts of the strategic processes implemented by Royal Mail that include its internal and external analysis. The review covers a wide variety of different sources to locate various types of information about the company. Furthermore, a detailed research has been done on the management of the company that includes the management of its workforce and the future targets that are desired to achieve. Organization Overview Royal Mail is one of the biggest postal and courier service company in United Kingdom. It has various subsidiaries which include Royal Mail, Post Office and Parcel-force all over the globe. The company also offers various services which include postal mail services, parcel delivery systems and general logistics systems through their subsidiaries. It mainly focuses on the deliveries of letters and packages to different parts of the world by all the regions in the United Kingdom. Royal Mail has nearly 113,000 post boxes and 14,300 post o ffice branches all over the country which collects letters, packages and parcels from many different businesses (Boxall & Purcell, 2003). These letters and packages are further processed through 70 mail centers, 8 regional distribution centers and 3,000 delivery offices that are located in different parts of the country (Goddard & Melville, 2004). Royal Mail is indeed one of the most successful organizations in United Kingdom and holds a unique place in the global market. Internal Analysis Royal Mail is one of the oldest courier service companies that is controlled by the government of United Kingdom. As far as its internal analysis is concerned, the core strategies that are implemented by this organization are listed below: Pricing Strategy The strategies of Royal are based upon customer centric approach and appropriate managerial implications are considered when they are implementing their own strategies. This organization strictly works on the principle that since the needs of th e customers vary with time therefore they should adapt to these changes that can benefit them in both the short and the long run (Barney & Clark, 2007). Similarly the customers should also believe that the products and services offered by this organization are value added and that they are meant for the targeted customers only. As far as the pricing strategy of this organization is concerned it mostly focuses to offer their services at lower rates that can be afforded by customers of every class. Although there are many pricing schemes that can be implemented by the organizations such as premium pricing, competitive pricing and discount pricing. However, in the initial stage when this company was launched they adapted the premium pricing as the product was new in the market and the customers were also responding quite well. But as the company grew older the company focused on discount pricing and after that competitive pricing options were also introduced because new competitors wer e entering into the market. Later they also implemented zonal pricing in order to obtain a competitive advantage in both the short and the long run. Marketing Strategy The marketing of Royal Mail is very proactive and that is the reason why they are able to implement different marketing strategies effectively. These strategies are usually created by the decision makers of the company. It is

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Consommation (in French) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Consommation (in French) - Essay Example Mais cette expà ©rience moderne est trà ¨s diffà ©rente de celle du passà ©, quand faire les achats à ©tait un processus plus long, qui demandait plus d’à ©nergie. Aujourd’hui, je suis sà »r que les produits procurà ©s dans le supermarchà © sont de bonne qualità ©, puisqu’ils sont bien rà ©glementà ©s et bien gà ©rà ©. Le stock contient une gamme varià ©e de produits, mà ªme des apparats à ©lectriques, qui sont moins cher que les autres produits dans les petits magasins. Je pense qu’il vaut mieux acheter des produits qui sont situà ©s sous le mà ªme toit ou je suis plus attentif à   ce que j’achà ¨te. Faire des courses est, donc, une expà ©rience rafraà ®chissante et facile. Mais quand j’à ©tais enfant, jhabitais dans une petite ville en Irlande dans les annà ©es quatre vingt, ou il ny avait pas de grandes chaà ®nes de supermarchà ©s. Ma famille et moi faisaient les achats le samedi matin dans un marchà © ou nous achetions nos fruits et nos là ©gumes; il prenait au moins quatre heures pour finir les courses. On trouvait du pain à   la boulangerie et de la viande à   la boucherie, ou les produits à ©taient toujours frais et personne n’à ©tait mà ©fiant de leur bonne qualità ©. En plus, ma mà ¨re parlait avec les autres clients, donc on sentait une forte sensation dappartenir à   la communautà © et les petites entreprises et commerà §ants à ©taient une partie de notre culture et notre identità ©. J’ai alors pris cette tradition avec moi et aujourd’hui, je vais aussi aux petits commerà §ants pour certains ingrà ©dients, comme pain, lait, fromage ou chocolat parce que ma famille en mange beaucoup. Maintenant, les petites entreprises ont disparu et ont à ©tà © remplacà ©es par les grandes chaà ®nes de supermarchà ©s. Toutefois, je ne suis pas triste; au contraire, jaime la convenance moderne. Je crois que les communautà ©s ont besoin dun centre commercial proche pour acheter les choses nà ©cessaires sans grand effort. Aussi, nous habitons dans une socià ©tà © multiculturelle et cest important

Saturday, September 21, 2019

High school diploma Essay Example for Free

High school diploma Essay Did you know that education in school is really important? Many parents believe that education is important because it leads to a degree which grants you a good job. With an education you can get a steady pay check. With that pay check you will get away to financial independence as an adult. Why is Education So Important? he first thing that strikes me about education is knowledge gain. Education gives us knowledge of the world around us. It develops in us a perspective of looking at life. It helps us build opinions and have points of view on things in life. People debate over the subject of whether education is the only thing that gives knowledge. Some say, education is the process of gaining information about the surrounding world while knowledge is something very different. They are right. But then, information cannot be converted into knowledge without the catalyst called education. Education makes us capable of interpreting things rightly. It is not just about lessons in textbooks. It is about the lessons of life. Did you know that education in school is really important? School and education help people you understand beyond the world around them. Education helps ones immediate family, area, region, country, culture, race, or civilization. These different subjects open up information and knowledge. An important aspect of education is learning how to learn in order differentiate fact from fiction. Education is important because it equips us with all that is needed to make our dreams come true. Education opens doors of brilliant career opportunities. It fetches better prospects in career and growth. Every employer of today requires his prospective employees to be well educated. He requires expertise. So, education becomes an eligibility criterion for employment into any sector of the industry. We are rewarded for exercising the expertise required for the field we venture. We are weighed in the market on the basis of our educational skills and how well we can apply them. Education brings about economic wealth, political stability and social prosperity; all these are hallmarks of a prosperous society. It can therefore be said that education playas an important role if a society is to be successful. Tertiary education is an important aspect in the development of any society that considers or aspires to be modern. It is by far the best investment that a nation or an individual can make in its youth or oneself respectively. Educated people are in a better position to contribute to the development of their country; these educated individuals get employment opportunities that give them satisfaction and also earn some form of respect among their work mates. It also plays an important role in the integration of a society in that by interacting with people from various areas, it will raise different issues that people in rural areas are facing thereby promoting knowledge and understanding of these areas Life is nothing without education? Life without education is like living in the streets. Without education youll become lost. You will not have a guaranteed future. You will no go home ridding your favorite car to your Own home. By learning your basic alphabets youll work your way through to have a professional career. Therefore with out Education to school you will not learn at all. Life is never without education. In societies without formal schools, parents pass skills on to children. Education starts before you ever go to school and goes on after you finish school. That said, formal education is a great way to ensure that every child knows what is most necessary to live in a particular society. Without education you will be an illiterate person your children in the future will come up to you and you’re not going to know how to answer them with a right answer. Education will help build your own perspective. Schools are the place you school of started how to pronounce and count. Importance of education is needed in order to succeed in today’s world. In order to receive education you must go through some process. Your first process is to graduate from high school with your diploma. The next step is to attend college to obtain a degree in a trade that you would like to pursue. Without education you wouldn’t get good pay or promotion that you deserve. However, some people feel that they can get by in life without education, sadly that is not true. If you would like at the graphic at the bottom you will see that the higher the education you have the more money you can make. Education is important to have in today’s society. Importance of education able you to have a good job security and knowledge of your field supporting the hard work a person put into there education. Overall, school is the basic start that will drive you to your future. With knowledge youll get the sense of pride that you know must of the things. Education will help brighten your children’s future. 66% of the US population has a high school diploma or high. You should be amongst these people.