Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Use of Games in Teaching Grammar

Basically, female students are more polite and usually follow the teachers' instruction. They prefer to listen and learn. While the male students tend to ignore and do what they want to do, actually it challenged the teachers' patience. The male students tend to get bored easily, since learning English is more to theories learning. Moreover, a study has shown an important perspective under second language learning investigations; highlighting females to execute more interests, positive behaviors and performances, in comparison to the males (Keller, 1983; Awaken, 1999; Doormen&Shoaib, 2005).These re due to students' unlike levels of motivation, attitudes and anxiety towards language learning, further Influenced by their learning characteristics and styles, lesson content and teaching strategies, social environment and supportive mechanisms, family Influences and peer pressures, cognation levels, and so forth (Williams, Burden , 2002). It is important to note that the challenges facing school systems confronted with the same challenges. Sadomasochistic are not simply an artifact of urban education; rather, they have a significant impact on how urban schools are structured.The concentration of poverty and racial isolation matters in that it is directly related to school processes that significantly influence student achievement trends (Reemerged, 2005). 3. Objective This study aims at identifying reasons why female students have higher interest towards learning the English language. The objectives are as follows: a. To analyses the problems faced by the male students who have lower interest in language learning. B. To find out the whether the teacher is being biased c. To identify the best strategies to attract male students attention in learning language. Problem statement Why do female students have higher interest in learning English language in urban school? This paper addresses the problem that female students have higher interest in learning English language in urban school. Girls were found to be more inclined to study foreign and second languages and outperform boys (Cumberland, 2000). Males are claimed to have a more negative view and a less aptitude towards foreign language than females (Week, 2011). It shows that male students have lower interest and effort to learn English language.The main reason I want to conduct this research s because I am eager to know what makes this big gap in interest of learning English language between female and male students. Why female students interest is higher in learning English language. All these crucial points must be clarified. Only then, we can overcome this matter. Assumption -Male students have lower interest in learning English language. Research Question a. Is it because female students are not interested in practical learning? B. Are the teachers who teach English language come across being biased and not effective? C.What are the strategies can be used by the teachers to grab male stud ents and other students' attention? . Literature Review Several recent studies indicate that many young women around the world consider English to be intrinsically linked to feminism and are motivated to learn it as a language of empowerment. This trend is apparent in Japan, the FL context highlighted in this volume. At present many more young Japanese women than men appear to be interested in learning English, training for English language-related professions, and traveling to English-speaking countries (Sickbay's, 2002).For these women, English offers an entry into the Job market as well as a possible way of liberating themselves from the confines of gender patriarchy. Therefore, we can say that women have awareness of how important English language is. They know their a) Lack of motivation. Moreover, gender has been an important perspective under second language learning investigations; highlighting females to execute more interests, positive behaviors and performances, in compar ison to the males (Keller, 1983; Awaken, 1999; Doormen, 2005).Either because of their uninterested factors or because of feelings of hopelessness, students feared to lose face. Under such conditions, if the teacher were too strict and serious, they would lose their confidence, and not participate voluntarily. They do not have guard to talk in front of others. Some teachers tend to correct the students answers or words directly, it really denominated the students especially the boys. Teacher should be more gentle and smart in correcting the students so that they would not feel embarrass.Teachers' Judgment and treatment of students has tremendous influence on their educational and emotional development, and also impacts how students are labeled, and thus able to access educational resources (Cochran-Smith, 1997; Sakes & Lipton, 1999). Teacher's words and actions influence students very much, because students see teachers as heir role model. B) Teachers are being Judgmental and biased. Social Justice educators, instead, recognize that society is inequitable.Hence, they expect students of color, along with those who are poor, disabled, female, or have limited English skills, to encounter racism, classicism, and other forms of discrimination as part of their efforts to become productive and prosperous citizens (Bartholomew, 1994; Deader, 1991; Sakes , 1999). Teachers' perceptions of male- and (femaleness are crucial for their relations with pupils and can be an important factor in generating gender equity in schools. Gender stereotypes are also likely to be reinforced or weakened by text books and reading material provided in schools.When teachers become so Judgmental, it will affect his or her teaching and learning process and cause other problem, which can make some students feel left aside. Some teachers tend to focus more on female students because normally male students are playful and tend to make fun of the learning itself. However, there must be some male s tudents who really want to learn the language seriously. A study published in the Journal of Human Resources, revealed that boys gained a grade onus on assessment scores when they behaved as well as girls. ) c) Participation in classroom lessons.Participation usually means students speaking in class which are answer and ask questions, make comments, and Join in discussions. Like those in Cortical and Jinn's (1996) study, the students in the present study also worried about losing face in oral English language classrooms. Thus, they kept quiet and waited until they were required to speak English. As we can see a male student's responses, â€Å"l am not so active because I don't want to â€Å"lose face† when I make mistakes† (L', male). â€Å"L have elf-respect and don't want to lose face before others. Female students tend to be learning seriously.Most of the male students do not like to be control within any situation, they like to be free and do as they like. Even th ough, they Join the learning process, they will usually be Joking around rather than learning seriously. Teacher should come up with practical activities such as role play, debate, choir and others to attract student's attention especially male students. This is because males tend to engage eagerly in practical learning style. D) Students different learning strategies Learning strategies are defined in general as behaviors that are intended to influence the individual processes information.Chamois (1987) regards learning strategies as techniques, approaches or deliberate actions that students take in order to facilitate the learning, and recall of both linguist ICC and content area information† (Chamois, 1987, p. 71). Similarly, according to Oxford (1990), language learning strategies are specific operations used by the learner at various levels to ease the acquisition, storage, retrieval and use of information. Individuals' learning Tyler differ based on their high versus low academic achievement. Gifted and underachieving students have significantly different learning styles and do not perform well with the same methods.Conversely, gifted students in nine diverse cultures with talents in either athletics, art, dance, leadership, literature, languages, or music evidenced essentially similar learning style characteristics to other students with the same talent (Amalgam & Price, 1993: 7) and much defiance, meanwhile, the girls produced big blocks of talk and were obedient, and there was much attentive listening and sympathizing. Females were more successful than males in eight countries among 9-year-olds. ((landfills differ by gender (Grebe, 1999; Pizza, 1990). Males and females learn differently from each other.Males tend to be more kinesthesia, tactual, and visual, and need more mobility in a more informal environment than females. Males also are more nonconforming and peer motivated than their female classmates. In group, males tend to learn less by li stening. Females, more than males, tend to be auditory, authority-oriented, and better able to sit passively at conventional classroom desks and chairs than males. Females also tend o need significantly more quiet while learning (Pizza, 1990: 1 1); be more self- and adult -motivated, and conforming than males (Marcus, 1977: 9). ) Teaching strategies Cave (2001) suggested, studying such questions is important because if gender disparities are found, they may lead teachers and researchers to seek ways to minimize them, thus affording both genders maximum opportunities to achieve high levels of LA literacy. In terms of general language learning strategies, some studies show minimal differences between males and females (Smash, 2003; Shook&Sheorey, 2002) or even higher strategy use for males (Bally, 1996). Most current literature in this area, however, shows that females tend to be more active strategy users than their male counterparts (Oxford, 1993).Teacher should put herself into her students' place, thinking about their difficulties in learning English. Teacher should to be more active, thoughtful, and humorous while giving a class, not stern like certain teacher's role to change the student's perspective of learning English language. Teacher must be creative and create fun learning. Sometimes students don't like to read because they find it difficult. It is the teacher's Job to find the ability level of each detent and gear lessons to meet their needs. Students will feel successful and connect to lessons when they are taught at their level.Those students who seem bored probably lack of the ability to keep up with other students in the regular classroom. Mix up the male students with female students whenever there is activity in classroom. Therefore, the boys would not left behind. We know the girls will do their tasks properly. Their cooperation in completing the task will produce fantastic outcomes. Female students will be more silent and generate ideas whil e the boys will help and boost up their plan. 6. Research Methodology I will be using quantitative method for my research later. I will prepare questionnaire.In which I will use liker scale in my questionnaire. This is because I think, this is easier for them to understand and easier for them to provide their feedback. 7. The expected Work Schedule/Timeline My research will be done during 14 weeks of practical at school. For the first 1 week, I will be observing the students attitudes and responses towards my teaching. The next three weeks, I will give them few activities, exercises and see the feedback. Based on the activities and exercises given, I will identify their strengths and nakedness. I will prepare the questionnaire based on that.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Sugar And Children

Hypothesis – The more sugar that a child consumes, the less attentive the child will be. If too much sugar is consumed the child may become very active for a short time then crash. ï‚ ·Independent Variable – In safe dosses increase the amount of sugar the children consume in a given time period before having them take a short test to track their attention. ï‚ ·Dependent Variable – Have each of the children take a short test to determine how their attention was affected with each dosage of sugar. ï‚ ·Confounding Variable – List any and all affects that may not be a result of the sugar consumption.Survey Methodï‚ ·Random Sample – Allow at random a few different children from the population of children to take part in the survey. If you must recruit children for the survey then do it in a manner that will get an average of the complete population of children. Such as selecting a child from every five children alphabetically.ï‚ ·Biasing à ¢â‚¬â€œ Avoid asking questions that forces the children to fit your preconceived notion or interpretation. Do not use questions such as: Do you not feel that too much sugar causes you to lose concentration or your attention when taking a test. Instead reword it like this: How do you feel that the consumption of sugar affects your attention when taking a test. Set up questions to obtain the child’s grade and their preferences of sweets like how many and what product they consume. Compare and ContrastBoth Methods offer valuable insight to our original question. Survey Method will allow you to effectively gain data at a much faster pace. Experimental Method allows for a controlled environment and establishes a cause and effect from your experiment. While the Survey Method is a very fast way to gain insight, it is sometimes hard to refrain from showing bias in your questioning especially if an outcome is already interpreted. It is also hard to guarantee a true average of the tota l population of children when doing the Survey Method. In my opinion the Experimental Method is clearly the better choice for it establishes the extent of which sugar consumption affects the child’s attention and is done in a controlled environment.

Assessing Books in Line with the Greenaway Medal Criteria Essay

The Kate Greenaway Medal is one of the most prestigious awards given in the UK. It is awarded annually for distinguished illustration in children’s books. Awarded along with the Carnegie Award (given for distinguished writing in children’s books), the Greenaway Medal is given by the Chartered Institute of Librarians and Information Professionals (CILIP). For more than half a century now, the Greenaway Medal has been regarded as one of the most aspired recognitions by illustrators. Since it was first awarded in the year 1956, hundreds of prominent British book artists like Lauren Child, Anthony Browne, Shirley Hughes, and John Burningham have already received the award. The criteria Books which are nominated for CILIP’s Kate Greenaway medal must be of exceptional artistic quality. Focusing on the visual experience, the illustrated book must be stimulating and engaging. Although the graphic elements are prioritized, the texts must be properly coordinated with the images. Among the most important factors which must be assessed are the creative style, format, harmonization between illustration and text, and the visual experience. â€Å"The Baby Who Wouldn’t Go to Bed† by Helen Cooper The book tackles the story of a boy who simply refuses to go to sleep. When his mother calls for Bedtime, the boy drives away in his car and travel on to the night in search for a companion for his night quest. However, he constantly fails at his attempts to find the perfect comrade in the magical world full of characters from his toys. In the end, he realizes that nighttime is truly bedtime. He is then reunited with his mother, who like also cannot sleep as she was in search for him. To start with, the medium used for the book â€Å"The baby who wouldn’t go to bed† is quite suitable for its purpose. The visual images were not just appropriate – but rather very crucial to promote a general idea of the story. Although the concept presented in the book can also be delivered successfully through audio-visual mediums, the printed one is also equally fitting. Readers cannot help but notice that the visual images presented in the book follows the central theme that the story diverges on – a dreamy night. The images on the book well deliver the story from the sun setting to an overwhelming darkness all on its own as the readers go over the story page by page. As the story progresses, the shades and colors go darker and more looming with every page. Basically, the style of presentation of the texts and images vary. Some texts are matched with images much like groups of idea clumped together to present a segment of the story. In this style, the texts and images complement each other much like a painting with a written description. In other pages, the texts are separated from the visual images, thereby promoting the idea that the images only serve as a supplementary backdrop of the story. In some cases, the texts act as mere subtitles or captions for the graphics. Consistent throughout the whole book however is the dreamy style of illustration that is distinctively unique. Focusing on the typography, readers will find the book a pleasant read as its texts come in bold roman prints offered in the right sizes fit for kid’s reading. To a certain extent, the texts which are sparingly arranged in no more than five lines a paragraph heightens the reading appeal of the book. The spacing of the fonts and lines also makes each page pleasing to the eye. The lay-out of the book varies from page to page and that lack of a uniform presentation style adds up to the surprise element of the story. The texts do not appear intrusive. However, there are some pages where the texts are not placed in successive orders. This lack of order prompts a reader to ignore some texts so as to focus more on the highly important texts. A particular example is on page eight, where texts â€Å"The little car went slower†¦ and slower†¦ and slower† will probably be ignored as the more integral content (â€Å"The musicians played such a sweet tune†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ) attracts the reader’s whole attention. (Cooper) Among the most notable characteristics of the book was the fact that the images and the texts were complementing with each other. Both were much needed for the presentation of the story and both of which enhanced the effect of one towards the full comprehension of the story. Another positive aspect of the book is the fact that the illustration were all very clear as to what message that they wanted to deliver – it even seems that the pictures/ graphics alone can tell the story without the texts. In general, this book gives young ones (twelve months to six years) a good reading experience as it combines reality with imagination by merging a typical night time scenario with a magical and dreamy presentation. It plays out a pre-existing experience into a dreamy adventure that is packed with much imagination left to be unveiled by the reader. It serves well as a nighttime book that’s meant to be read just before naptime – and its whole significantly proves that it is in line with that theme. â€Å"Jethro Byrd Fairy Child† by Bob Graham The book â€Å"Jethro Byrd fairy Child† explores an age-old theme – the need to enjoy the small wonders of life and keep oneself imaginative despite an adult’s tendency to formulate a very preoccupied life as he welcomes maturity. In the book, Annabelle spends most of her time trying to find fairies. Fortunately, she discovers that they are really true as she meets the fairy child by the name of Jethro Byrd in her own backyard. She also meets the rest of the Byrd family and invites them for tea. Unfortunately, her parents cannot see the fairies and Annabelle wonders what would happen if she would just go with the fairies and leave her family behind. Just like any good fairytale book that is jam-packed with lots of creative juices, this book is an appropriate medium for the story. A book that’s full of illustrations is probably the best way of delivering a story with a fairy plot like this. However, although the theme and the plot of the story are both cliches, the illustrations are not. The graphics and the artist’s style are very distinguishing as it almost focuses only on a single setting – a backyard in a suburban area. Although the whole story seems is full of magical elements, what’s good about the illustrations is that they tone down the imaginations. The graphic images do not offer the same magical bluff that most fairy stories deliver. Instead, they create a more casual and simple theme that allows the readers to dwell on a balanced storytelling style – one wherein both the texts and the images are telling the story. In addition to that, the quality of the washed-out illustrations was consistently appealing all throughout the book. The simple style works well with the theme which is also straightforward and easy to follow. As for the typography, the book also rated well. The typeface and size were fit for the reading requirements of young ones four to seven years old. Another good thing about the book is that there was no uniform style of placing the texts. The texts were placed on the top, bottom, left, or right side of the page, depending on the demands of the graphical elements for every page. Such made the layout more appealing. Moreover, since the texts were properly placed, they did not appear intrusive in each page despite the fact that they were a bit too many lines for every page. Instead, the texts took on a very integral role to fully comprehend the flow of the story. Unlike other books with illustrations however, this one would probably fail to tell the story based on the graphical elements alone. Fortunately, the need for texts was met fully in a creatively appealing manner. The illustrations and the texts were also very much in synch. The artist made use of recurring visual images – the fence and the backyard setting – to normalize the magical theme and keep the readers abreast with the values and the theme that the story wanted to portray and develop. To set the normal setting of the story, the illustrations on the covers and title page of the book were used as an introductory element showing a casual metropolitan/suburban scenario. Unlike other graphical books which appear as picture mosaics, this one is more organized and fit for a child. The book’s use of images is not merely for decorative purposes. Rather, the images harmonize one’s imagination and reality. It merges the idea of fairy existence to normal day-to-day experiences, therefore engaging more young readers. With these illustrations, young readers cannot help but think of their own backyard and their own probable adventures with the fairies that they might find. Overall, the visual experience that this book offers is simple but overwhelmingly clear and engaging. The story which revolved around a simple plot with a spice of magical elements requires just these plain illustrative elements. As the illustrations normalize Annabelle’s adventure, the book becomes more engaging and pleasing to read. The colors used and the water-color style of the graphics also gave the book a very heartwarming appeal. Conclusions The two books fit the criteria of the Kate Greenaway Medal on the following grounds: the artistic style portrayed in the books were unique and distinctive; the illustrations were in sync with texts; the illustrations were clear; the illustrations did not appear like picture upholsteries, rather, they increased one’s understanding of the story. In general, the visual experiences offered by the books were engaging, enhancing the book’s ability to attract and retain the young reader’s interest in literary works. WORKS CITED: Helen Cooper. â€Å"The Baby who wouldn’t Go to Bed. † Toronto, ON: Doubleday Canada, 1996. Bob Graham. â€Å"Jethro Byrd Fairy Child. † Cambridge, Mass. : Candlewick Press, 2005, c2002

Monday, July 29, 2019

Marketing Financial Services Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 3

Marketing Financial Services - Essay Example The following marketing areas would be considered in the discourse: the marketing tools used by the organization, the customers of the organization, including issues such as customer care, the current issues faced by the organization, and the control systems used by HSBC. HSBC Bank has been operating in England and Wales at the registered office located at 8 Canada Square, London E14 5HQ. It offers a diverse portfolio of financial instruments including savings and current accounts, investment accounts, credit cards, loans, mortgages, insurance and international services. It supports a wide range of education projects and initiatives throughout the communities where they do business. In addition, â€Å"HSBC supports a wide range of projects and initiatives that underline their commitment to UK businesses.† (HSBC, 2010, 1) The management of HSBC promotes diversity and equality of opportunities through programs where they establish partnerships with other business organizations. Accordingly, â€Å"representatives of HSBC Bank plc can provide advice on investment and pension products from selected providers, including companies within the HSBC Group, and on life insurance products from HSBC Life (UK) Limited.† (HSBC, 2010, 1) With the extent of drastic effects that the financial crisis have wrought, HSBC Bank remains strong in the market due to its strengths, as presented: (1) diversity of financial portfolio; (2) a strong customer relations skills; (3) a competent and professional management; (4) extensive global reach; (5) substantial resources. The multitude and variety of products and services enable HSBC to tap a wider range of clientele base from children to retirees. Their strong customer relations skills make their management and staff adept and competent to address customer relations issues and impending threats in the environment. An extensive global reach is a plus factor to tap potentials in diverse

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Economic globalization reduces the possibility of conflict Essay

Economic globalization reduces the possibility of conflict - Essay Example From a critical point of view, when countries learn to depend on each other, they form long lasting relationships as the feel that they need each other for survival. On this note, they are committed to maintain harmony to ensure that this interdependence works out for all of them and that each country can uplift their economy. Since countries are unique entities with different resources, it is true that globalizing the economy will ensure that conflicts are reduced and each country can depend on its allies. On this ground, it is clear that the harmony that the world enjoys today is a result of health relationships that have resulted from the formation of a global economy. The end of the 20th century and the 21st century is a time when the world has experience harmony as a result of reduced conflict. The world economy structure has changed due to the formation of a global market where countries are free to venture. Unlike in the post war period, countries are free to invest across the world due to reduced barriers of foreign business entrants. As Barbie (1996) points out, there has been great economic integration to the extent that it is impossible to tell where a product was manufactured. Barbie gives the example of goods that are â€Å"made in China† but have actually been produced through operation integration. Countries have come together to venture in common markets to the extent of collaboratively producing one product. As countries exhaust their domestic markets, they are free to invest in foreign markets in the onset of market liberalization. In the 21st century business organizations have ventured in international markets to increase t heir profits by investing in unexploited markets. This kind of economic integration has resulted into reduced rivalry as countries learn that the domestic market is not enough for economic development. As a result, the new century has seen the number inter country wars reduced due to the economic cohesion that

Saturday, July 27, 2019

The analysis of the strangers Movie Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The analysis of the strangers - Movie Review Example He was almost sure that she would accept it. At the same time, a stranger, blonde woman appears looking for Tamara. She even comes back a second and third time, but this time wearing a mask. It would be difficult to imagine someone would be in the surrounding .This introduces the theme title of the movie which is later followed by encounters with strangers and strange occurrences (Bertino 100). The moral lesson in this scene is that sometimes who we don’t get what we are almost sure of getting. The events that follow frighten James and Kristen and the viewer too. Their means of escape or calling for help are destroyed and the person responsible is nowhere to be seen vandalized car, with slashed tires, missing phones and the appearance of a track hauling at James all create a theme of terror (Bertino 100). The couple finds a gun in the bedroom and it create some relief of having self defense. Instead James ends up shooting his friend Mike. To torment James the unseen stranger p aints the word ‘killer’ on the glass window. It is the dull lighting in the room, the messed up appearance of everything in the house and outside that creates horror. The main actors are breathing deeply with a feeling of hopelessness with the sound track playing strongly in the background. Not being in control and lack of means of escape creates a feeling of helplessness. The moral ideas here are that we should be aware of our surrounding. What may harm you could be staring at you but you are in a position to stare back. Sometimes the enemy uses one’s weaknesses and mistakes to disorient your actions. Whenever one makes decision calm and trying to settle into the context is key to avoid serious mistakes that may harm. The next day, Kristen and James are tied up by the tormenting strangers and amidst her crying she asks why they chose them. The response is cold words â€Å"because you were home† given by the stranger wearing a doll face mask (Bertino 100). The viewer is left wandering what these words meant. Could it be the house they are in belonged to the strangers who are now starting to appear as if they are ghosts? Or could it be these are stalkers who followed them from the wedding reception? The strangers remove their mask to reveal their faces to the couple, but the faces do not appear on the screen creating even more suspense and fear on the itchy feeling on the viewer. The masks used by the attackers could represent the idea of trying to evade reality which comes back to torment you ‘because you were home† to all these destruction. The moral lesson in the theme is that prior reflection on actions and decisions before time catches up with us and the mask is removed but before the removal you could be dead or in life threatening situations. Along the way, the group meets with some two boys distributing religious material, and when the doll face is asked if she is a sinner she just carelessly responds â€Å"someti mes† and the pin up girl tells her not to worry â€Å"it will be easier next time â€Å"these words create the feeling that Doll face could have been familiar with either Kristen or James and the idea of killing the was hanging heavy on her neck (Bertino 100). What will be easier? When is the next time? From his theme we learn that even criminals regret the torment they have caused, but the satisfaction of being in control is overwhelming and they have a

Friday, July 26, 2019

Working in International Teams Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Working in International Teams - Essay Example Organizations can freely conduct their business in any part of the world. The usual nine-to-five day jobs have seemingly been dissolved into modern time frames where business activities are conducted across a span of varying time zones around the world (Devine, 2002). Colleagues in an organization can be working from different parts of the world in different time zones to accomplish the same objectives for the organization unlike before where colleagues had to be in one open room (Devine, 2002). This has led to new dynamics of work in modern and contemporary organizations. Another impact of globalization on businesses is the reliance on teamwork rather that individual performance in accomplishing organizational objectives. The contemporary organizational challenges demand a team approach in order to gather a wide range of views, skills and experiences and use them effectively to meet and tackle emerging issues (Devine, 2002). A team can be defined as a group of individuals working to gether collaboratively to accomplish a common purpose. The team is held together by the shared objectives, a common purpose and identity of each team member. Teams in organizations are formed to work on various projects that help the organization advance towards meeting its visions. Globalization has also led to the emergence of a new landscape in business operations. In the new business framework, technical brilliance alone is no longer enough for one to be successful in today’s international marketplace (Devine, 2002). Organizations today require their employees at all levels of the organization to comfortably interact freely with people from other cultures. Organizations require individuals to communicate and interact through a more global lens in order to give the organizations a competitive edge on the international scene. With most organizations opening up to the international market, there is a great demand for initiating projects that meet the international needs and demands of consumers. These international projects can be very rewarding to both organizations and their employees, but they are very challenging. Most organizations therefore rely on international teams to manage tasks that are of an international nature. Belonging to a team makes an individual feel being part of something much wider than themselves, and when the team is highly diversified with international culture, the team members feel part of the wider international community. The challenge of building and managing international teams has become evident over the years for managers and leaders in various professional fields. Team members also encounter challenges in working with each other to achieve a common objective and purpose given the wide differences that exist among them in terms of age, skills, experience, gender, race, ethnicity and most importantly culturally diverse opinions (Wheelan, 2010). Team members are under pressure to perform effectively with appropriate prof essional behavior in the context of the international business environment. Team members are required to work in multicultural teams posing very many challenges to the individual members and team leaders. The highly diversified multicultural environment comes with a lot of challenges ranging from communication difficulties to varying opinions based on one’s cultural background (Wheelan, 2010). Analysis and Thesis Statement Working in international teams is both a challenging and a rewarding endeavor. International teams are made up of individuals from various parts of the world who may either come to work together from the same location or may opt to work from the different parts where they are located. Different places around the world have different cultures which often impact on

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Social movement news Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Social movement news - Essay Example From this above mentioned information, it might be clearly revealed that, in this age post racial period, the issue of ethnic discrimination is a major topic of concern as compared to others. Since, slave era or colonial era, the Asian Americans or the African citizens had to bear huge range of discriminations in all aspects such as educational facilities, voting rights, land acquisition, job employment, and many others. However, due to which, a hug range of Native Americans or Africans had to remain uneducated or jobless, as compared to white Americans. As a result, the level of poverty and unemployment raised that hindered their livelihood and living standard to a significant extent. Apart from this, due to the prevalence of racial discrimination, the African citizens feared to send their kids in schools and colleges to attain educational facilities and so their level of illiteracy increased to a considerable extent mainly among the black citizens of the nation of America as compar ed to others. Other than this, numerous African citizens emigrated from neighbouring countries is also barred to attain respectable positions (Parker & Goering). As a result of which, in spite of high experience and knowledge, the African Americans failed to improve their career objective or goals due to racial discriminations in this age of information technology or globalization. Furthermore, due to which, the level of wages of the African Americans are also quite low as compared to Original (Americans American Civil Liberties Union).

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

The Age of Depression Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Age of Depression - Article Example 156). Thus, the authors underline that depression is a term used both too widely and too narrowly. Psychiatrists who use it too widely apply it to diverse normal states, like sadness and grief, and diverse abnormal states, like paranoid paralysis due to fear, and obsessive ambivalent paralysis. "Revolutionary transformations" in psychiatry allow identify new causes and manifestation of emotional and mental disorders classified as depression. The authors give a special attention to strengths and weaknesses of such types as DSM I and DSM II editions. The new edition, DSM III proposed a new approach to psychiatric diagnosis criteria. Thus, the author underline that 'the main drawback of symptom-based criteria was they eliminated the consideration of the context in which the symptoms arose" (Horwitz & Wakefield 2005, p. 157). The authors take into account research studies comparing statistical results obtained during 1980s and 1990s. They found that some psychiatrists who apply the conce pt too narrowly deny depressive dynamics in others to hide them in themselves, from themselves. Or the diagnosis is not made because the patient disguises the illness: (1) as a behavioral symptom; (2) as an attitudinal symptom; (3) as a physical symptom; (4) as another psychological disorder. The authors claim that the main limitation of these studies that they ignored the context of symptoms. As the most important, the traditional symptom-based approach is easy to use but it is less effective. The description of the clinical manifestations of depression is organized according to the parameters of the mental status examination. While the diagnosis of depression is not warranted unless a significant number of the signs and symptoms are present, it should be suspected even in the presence of just a few of them. The authors state that "it is important to make distinction between the normal and sadness responses" in order to provide effective treatment because "medical interference in n ormal sadness can be even harmful" (Horwitz & Wakefield 2005, p. 159). Horwitz & Wakefield come to conclusion that DSM III has many limitations and inadequate criteria which caused 'unintended consequences' for general public and society. The authors of the articles discuss an important problem of criteria applied to the state of depression and negative consequences of misdiagnosis. I agree with the authors that it is crucial to apply both symptom-based and content-based criteria to diagnose mental disorders. According to DSM III, psychiatrists diagnose depression from depressive-like symptoms that are in fact part of another syndrome. Because symptoms characteristic for depression are also characteristic for other disorders, most depressive symptoms have a differential diagnosis. For instance, a patient can be misdiagnosed as "depressed" because he/she is unable to relate to others. In some cases, psychiatrists diagnose depression in the absence of illness. This happens when normal moodiness is misidentified as depression. Here the clinician fails to distinguish getting depressed from having a clinical depression, the symptom from the syndrome. The main limitations of the article are lack of current research and statistical data. The author use statistical information and research studies

Business and social Responsibility Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Business and social Responsibility - Essay Example Since, they have to face the end users, their stake is quite critical. Each stakeholder of the company is as important as the other. The management is responsible for the overall strategy and production enhancement of the company. They are also responsible to take care of their workers and their channel partners. At the same time they have a social responsibility to the area where they are operating. Their decision is crucial for the future of the rest of the stakeholders and dependants. They need cooperation from the workers as well as the distributors and stockists, which will help them to increase their productivity and sales. It is up to them how they wish to run the company and what issues and objections they need to overcome. The issues could be varied and may not have direct relation to the company’s primary objective, which is turnover and profitability. Similarly the workers have a huge role to play in the organization, since they are the only source of manpower in the area. It is a coexistent for both the groups. Each of the group is dependant on the other for their existence. They are responsible for the efficient productivity at the plant and their decision is important for the company to survive and grow. But they also need to be aware of their well being and the effect it will have in Teesside. Also, their cooperation and understanding of the company’s requirements is essential, so as to come to a consensus with the management. The same applies for the distributors, who must ensure the availability of the company’s product at their sales point. They are the direct contact point for the company to the end user and they are to ensure a positive image to the customers. Hence, any negative vibe or feelings of the customer needs to communicated to the company. If one considers the ethical issues surrounding Chemdex Chemicals, then we need to understand the difference between ethical and unethical business practice.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

CASE 4-Healthcare Financial Problems and Remedial Action Plans Research Paper

CASE 4-Healthcare Financial Problems and Remedial Action Plans - Research Paper Example a Hospital Medical Center puts the organization at the peril of not attaining its objectives aimed at providing medical and health services to the poor. The availability of resources to an organization exposes an organization to favorable opportunities. In the presence of adequate resources, an organization can avail the advantages of favorable opportunities (Swayne et al, 2008). Notably, presence of adequate resources will allow California Hospital Medical Center compensate its employees and cater for the large number of people who depend on the organization. Failure to pay employees may render the organization insolvent. The organization’s employee remuneration is dependent on the availability of financial resources (Swayne et al, 2008). Poor employee compensation will in turn affect the employee motivation and cause the failure in attaining company goals. Businesses can at any time face contingencies and adverse changes, which impact their operations. Presence of adequate financial resources can assist the organization offset itself from such contingencies, such as a financial crisis and business oscillations emanating from heavy losses (Swayne et al, 2008). Availability of financial resources increases an organization’s efficiency. Availability of financial resources in an organization is linked to the presence of adequate facilities which improve an organization’s efficiency (Swayne et al, 2008). The unavailability of adequate financial resources affects California Hospital Medical Center’s access to adequate medical facilities which hampers its ability to provide medical services to the people. The availability of financial resources to California Hospital Medical Center can assist the organization access facilities thus, improving its effectiveness. In this regard, California Hospital Medical Center may have to seek more sources of funds in order to support its operations. Organizations require adequate man power in their quest to attain their

Monday, July 22, 2019

Bob Knowlton Case Study Essay Example for Free

Bob Knowlton Case Study Essay Attribution process in chapter 4 is referred to as the ways in which people come to understand the causes of their own or others’ behavior. Knowlton felt that Fester was brought in to take his position as project head. With all the questions and research analysis that Fester completed on his own, Knowlton felt betrayed since his friend and mentor Jerrod never took the time to explain to him what was happening. When Knowlton did approach Jerrod to question why Fester was there, Jerrod replied, â€Å"We’re taking him on [. ]†Jerrod also replied that, â€Å"I don’t know yet where he will finally land †¦I thought he might spend a little time with you by way of getting started. † I believe that Knowlton should have gone back to talked to Jerrod again. Knowlton should have got his point across about the way that he and his team was feeling about Fester questions the work that he and his team had completed over the last six months and how calling his home at 2 o’clock explaining how Link’s patterning problem could be solved among other things. Jerrod could have then explained that Fester was brought in to be the project head for another department. In 1996, my husband and I were transferred to Korea for one year by the Army and our two kids that were 15 months old and 3 ? months old stayed with my mother-in-law. Once we returned a year later, our kids had grown so much. However much importantly to me, my kids were calling my mother-in-law mommy and I had not prepared myself for that. In the beginning, I was very hurt as well as confused as to why my kids was calling their grandmother â€Å" mommy†, but I came to the realization that they were at that stage in life where they were just starting to talk and mommy and daddy were their first words. After about a week, I asked my mother-in-law if she wanted the kids to call her grandma or nana so they would get use to calling my husband and I mommy and daddy. Finding of Facts 2: Self-Esteem The letter that Knowlton wrote explained that he would be glad to come back later (he would only be 40 miles away) to assist if there was any problems with the past work. Recommendation/Justification Self-Esteem is defined as the extent to which an individual believes that he or she is a worthwhile and deserving individual. In Knowlton’s situation he felt that he deserved the promotion to project head because he had the knowledge, skills and ability to perform the job. However, when Fester came and started challenging the result that he and his team had determined, he lost his self-esteem as well as his self-confidence and felt as if he was worthless to Mr. Jerrod and most importantly to his team and that allowed him to make a hasty decision to leave the organization. I recommend that Knowlton fight for his position, his team and most importantly his self-esteem. I recommend that Knowlton think about the achievements and contributions that he has made to the team as well as the organization. Once Knowlton builds his self-esteem back up, I recommend that he talks with his supervisor Mr. Jerrod and express his true feeling regarding how Fester approach toward his team is being very disruptive. In the military, we are usually transferred to different duty stations every three to five years. This one particular time, I was transferred to Ft Bragg, NC and they were not aware that I was coming to be assigned to the unit. Since they were not aware that I was coming, they did not have a place for me to work so I was consider a â€Å"floater† going from section to section to help out where ever needed until they found a permanent slot for me. The first section that I worked in was the processing section. The section was running smoothly, and I was there for observation purposes only. However, the leader that I am, I could not stand by and allow the soldiers to continue to work long hours without giving suggestions that would allow them to work smarter. I saw the hesitation that they were giving so I called a meeting and explained my purpose of being in the section and also let the soldiers know that I was just there to assist. Once they realized that I was not there to take anyone’s job, and that I was there to help the section run more efficiently, the soldiers began to gravitate toward me for more suggests. After about a week, the soldiers saw the results of my suggestions and incorporated those suggestions into their daily routines in the office. The soldiers also requested that I be assigned to their section permanently without my knowledge and when it was brought to my attention I was very impressed and decided to stay in that section. Findings of Facts: Team Empowerment Bob always prided himself on the fact that the work of the lab was guided and evaluated by the group as a whole and he was fond of repeating that it was not a waste of time to include secretaries in such meetings. Recommendations/Justification: Team empowerment refers to the degree to which its members perceive the group as (1) being competent and able to accomplish work-related tasks (potency), (2) performing important and valuable tasks (meaningfulness), (3) having choice (autonomy) in how they carry out their task, and (4) experiencing a sense of importance and significance (impact) in the work performed and goals achieved. Bob was proud of the members of his team. No one thought that they were smarter than anyone else on the team; they respected each other and valued each other’s opinion. However, from the very first day that Fester arrived, he made it clear that he was not a team player. He thought that everyone should work individually on their portion of the project, come together to complete the project and that be it. Bob also stated that he valued everyone’s opinion including the secretaries. Every member of the team know that if they did not pull their weight on their particular part of the project they could depend on their team mates for assistance and again Fester was not a fan of that. I believe that Bob should have stepped in and expressed his feelings as to how he and his team worked together on everything. He should have expressed how he valued everyone’s opinion and that he was not going to let him or ever Jerrold tear them apart. If Fester still had concerns he should have taken that up with Jerrold however, it should have been a dead issue to Jerrold since Fester was not going to be in charge of the department that Bob was currently heading. At my last unit, I was the section chief for the Personnel Section. I had just completed my training about three weeks prior when another sergeant came to the section that out ranked me. When the other sergeant came, after one week of watching how my section and I conducted business she wanted to make changes. One day she just came in the office and started making changes without consulting me or our commander. When I arrived to the office and saw the changes that she had made, I asked to speak with her separately, and I respectfully told her that I didn’t appreciate her coming in and changing my section around. She began to say that the changes that she was making was how she had her section set up at her last unit and the section ran smooth once all the changes were complete. Since she outranked me, I had to tell her again, respectfully that this was not her section, and the commander had not approved any of her changes nor did he have any knowledge of any of her changes. We then went and talked with the commander and he had agreed with me that first he would make the final decision if she was going to be in charge of the section or if I was going to continue to run the section. Also, if he was going to put her in charge of the section any changes that she wanted to make still had to be approved by him first. So needless to say, she was not happy with me, however, about a month or so later we had a talk. She stated that she admired me for standing up for myself as well as my section. She then went on to apologize for trying to use her rank to intimidate me. After our discussion, we were able to work together in the section as equals.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Transformational And Charismatic Styles Of Leadership

Transformational And Charismatic Styles Of Leadership This paper investigated the qualities of great leaders, and examined specifically the characteristics of transformational and charismatic leaders. The analysis discovered that people of all levels within an organization need to be motivated and a great leader provides that foundation. The study revealed transformational and charismatic leaders have similarities and differences yet both can be exceptionally effective. A discussion on the qualities of great leaders and issues of leadership in general was offered followed by a discourse on transformation and charismatic leadership. An example was offered of a real-world experience of the author to illustrate the leadership styles. Finally, a conclusion was given to highlight and synthesize the main points of the paper. Introduction It is not enough to be a good or even a great manager to be a great leader. A leader must inspire, motivate, and possess key qualities that allow them to rise above the politics of the moment and keep the long-term view for optimal outcomes of their particular venture. The situations of Fortune 500 CEOs, and those of the leader of a local food bank, may vary in terms of financial statements, stock options, dividends, and clientele. However, what does not differ is the spark of a great leader, those particular qualities that make people want to follow and support the vision of the leader. While there are many differing ideas of what constitutes leadership, most would agree that regardless of the various theories, what makes a good leader can mean the success or failure of an organization or venture (DuPrin, 2004). Leadership is often the first line of problem-solving in many situations. Schools, government, even social media all do better depending upon the expertise of the leaders in charge. Most people want to follow, not lead. However, for those Churchills, Pattens and Kennedys that history has given the world, one can sense that without these key leaders and their unique qualities, the world would likely be much different. Common sense dictates that leadership is not only necessary, it is desirable. People want to know that someone competent is in charge. Yet, what defines competence, and how it is achieved and practiced, is a field of much study. While people demand and desire great leaders, they also tend to have reservations at the same time. One can see the deleterious effects of following a leader with the right qualities, but the wrong agenda. For example, Hitler was a leader, who abused his power and harmed millions of people. Extreme religious fanatics, while exhibiting leadership and getting people to follow them, also abused their power, subjecting their followers to atrocities (Charles Manson), and even death (Jim Jones and Jonestown). Luckily, great leaders have additional desirable qualities, that being to foster and nurture the safety and well-being of those they intend to lead. Leadership, therefore, is a relationship, not a thing. It is defined by the willingness of someone deciding to follow another. Indeed, leadership is a concept that happens among people in the leader/follower relationship. Without the consent of the follower to follow, there is nothing to lead. A question, then, is what causes a person to follow another person? The answer is found in part in the qualities that define a great leader, those certain characteristics that make and motivate others to follow them and their agenda. A great leader, in general will possess certain qualities. Key to being successful is the quality of effectiveness. There are eleven noted qualities of what makes an effective manager and four key principles that make an effective leader. The table below summarizes the eleven qualities of an effective manger: Command of Basic Knowledge Professional knowledge Sensitive to events Analytic Social skills and ability Emotional Resilience Proactive Creative Mental Agility Balance Learning Habits and Skills Self Knowledge (Pedler, Burgoyne, Boydell, 1944). While these elements as noted above are quite important for good management, a good manager does not necessarily make a good leader. (DuPrin, 2004) To be an effective leader, key characteristics are required. When asked, what is leadership, people tended to answer in one of the four main categories. Power: the ability to have people follow your agenda. Persuasion: the means to motivate. Vision: a leader provides the vision. Empowerment: a leader enables and empowers others to do their bidding. Generally, the conception is that a leader uses power in a non-coercive manner, to will people to engage in cooperative endeavors, in order to pursue the vision that rises above the self-interest of the follower (Bolman Deal, 1991). While the discussion of basic leadership fundamentals is important, the discussion will now turn to the types of leadership styles, focusing in on what is known as transformation leadership, and charismatic leadership. Transformational Leadership Transformation al leadership is a style where leaders not only widen the interest of their followers; they also tend to elevate those interests. This is accomplished through developing awareness of the vision and mission of the organization, and garnering acceptance of those purposes (DuPrin, 2004). In addition, transformational leaders motivate followers to go beyond their platform of self-interest, instead embracing a new paradigm of concern for the good of others. Transformational leaders employ the tools of vision, courage, motivation, charisma, and concern for the follower. Their vision is broad, their interest are those of the group, their mission is long-term and met through inspiring others to follower (Bass, Atwater, Avolio, 2008). The following diagram illustrates the dynamics and characteristics of a transformation leader: Beverly Alimo-Metcalfe,  John Alban-Metcalfe,  Margaret Bradley,  Jeevi Mariathasan,  Ã‚  Chiara Samele.  (2008). In short, a transformational leader is positive, has the long-term view in mind, and inspires people. Charismatic Leadership A charismatic leadership style differs from a transformational leadership style in one very key way: the charismatic leader uses personal characteristics in addition to general perceived characteristics in order to achieve the vision and mission of the organization. In addition to being masterful communicators, they build trust, and motivate people through channeling their own personal energy, excitement, and confidence onto the people they lead (DuPrin, 2004). They possess all the qualities of a transformation a leader, and can lead and inspire through their own devices of personality and charm. The charismatic leader motivates people to follow their agenda through ongoing personal contact, whether through training sessions, web meetings, motivational retreats, and consistent development of vision and goals that are effectively transmitted to their followers. The following diagram demonstrates the elements of a charismatic leader: (Ulrich, Zenger, Smallwood, 1999) Examples of famous charismatic leaders are Barack Obama, John F. Kennedy, Richard Branson, Dr. Martin Luther King, Mahtama Ghandi, among many others, and not all are positive models. Leadership implies power. Power corrupts, absolute power corrupts absolutely; such was the sentiment given by Lord Acton in 1883, in a letter he wrote to a friend. The concept was that leadership implies two main things: power, and the responsibility to use that power. Not all great leaders in history have been able to follow that axiom. Charismatic leadership, while an area of scholarly study, is also a real life concept. Once again, it should be noted that leadership is not a thing, not an item, it is a relationship based on an implicit relationship between leader and follower. Charisma, or charm, with its attendant energy, zest, irrepressibility, and constant motion, is an addictive quality to follow in a person, especially a person on charge: a leader. A charismatic leader runs the risk of being narcissistic, exploitative, and basically dangerous (Beyer, 1999). Such is the flavor difference between a transformational leader and a charismatic leader: the ability to get people to do what you want them to do based upon the leaders personal characteristics. Personal Experience: Combining Transformational and Charismatic Leadership Styles I would like to relate the experience of being a Lead Instructor and Technology Team leader. The background for this position stems from an unguided evolution from interested student, to job-seeker, lead instructor, to team leader. Additionally, the experience was not one that I initially sought. I did not want to be a lead instructor, or lead of anything. It just happened. I was in my twenties when I began working in education. My career began as a data control clerk and grew into a teaching position. My work ethic and knowledge spoke for itself and a friendly discourse arose between me and my principle. Eventually, I was offered a position as a Lead Instructor for the computer department which turned into a position as head of the Technology Department. On reflection, I can see that different factors came into play that influenced this course of events. 1) I was a motivated employee; 2) My work was exemplary, 3) I had an intuitive style for dealing with students of varying backgrou nds; 4) Students that I taught were inspired and motivated, and said so; 5) Scheduling and project management came naturally to me; 6) I had a sincere desire to teach, and do it well; 7) I was accessible, flexible, and ambitious. While these factors are not exhaustive, they do point to a leadership style that incorporates elements of transformational leaders and charismatic leaders, which to my great surprise I seem to possess. I motivated my students; they believed in themselves and hence produced good works. The outcome of this evolution has shaped my life forever. Not only did it lead to a lead role in the Technology department, it has prepared me for higher level positions that will be sought in the future after earning a higher degree in education. I am grateful for the opportunity to continue to develop leadership skills and intend to search for ways to motivate people, manage projects, and produce good outcomes. Conclusion Leadership is something people need, and even subjectively desire. It connotes an implicit contract between the leader, and the follower. Without the consent of the follower, there is not leader. Qualities that comprise a good leader are those that the person will employ in the leader/follower relationship, such as being knowledgeable, trustworthy, accessible, and confident, among others. Leadership is inherently a concept of relationship, and leadership styles have evolved to attempt to capture that relationship, based on the setting and demands of the particular situation. Leaders are not machines. They are people and people are uniquely different from each other. Leadership is also a field of study, where styles and characteristics are plugged into matrixes, quantified, qualified, and verified. Such is the nature of leadership. Two styles of leadership are transformational and charismatic leadership. One could reasonably argue that charismatic leadership is the flashy cousin of tr ansformational leadership. Both styles incorporate a method of inspiring others, producing trust, sharing a common vision, and creating success for the organization or venture. Dangers linger in any relationship where one party holds power and the other party gives it. Any student of leadership, must recognize that tripwire, and assiduously avoid it through correctly recognizing the dangers that abuse of the power can bring.

Samsung semiconductors

Samsung semiconductors Introduction Samsung Semiconductors is a leader in semiconductor electronics worldwide. Samsung Semiconductors is a leader in electronic components like DRAM and SRAM memory chips, flash memory components, thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) panels and screens, and system LSI products (digital technologies for home and mobile applications). These components are used in a wide range of applications, including computers, consumer electronics, and industrial equipment. Samsung semiconductors is part of Samsung Group, a Korea based international conglomerate. Samsung Group is an international conglomerate corporation headquartered in Seoul, South Korea. Samsung is involved in a wide range of businesses, from consumer electronics to petrochemicals, from advertising to life insurance. Business is divided into various industry groups including electronics industries, machinery heavy industries, chemical industries, financial services and other affiliated companies. Quality plays a very important role in a business like semiconductors, where, even a minor quality issue could potentially cause a lot of damage to reputation and the products that use this product. This study focuses on the Quality management program at Samsung, its certifications, its policy etc. The study also investigates the quality management system at Samsung through an audit. Company Background ( Founded in 1974, Samsungs Semiconductor Business started with the acquisition of Hankook Semiconductor. Initially the operations started as developing and mass producing ICs and peripherals for consumer electronics like LED watches, televisions, audio players and microwave ovens. In 1983, Samsungs evolved into a leading semiconductor manufacturer with the successful development of the 64Kb DRAM. Subsequently Samsung opened the Giheung Semiconductor Complex, its first memory fabrication facility in 1984. Since then, Samsung has been consolidating its position in the semiconductor segment. Samsung has been the market leader in Memory since 1993, and in NAND Flash since 2003. In 2001, the company expanded its System LSI Division and the opened its SoC Research Lab and signalled its long term commitment to logic and analog chip development. Samsung defines its vision as Creating the Future: There is no waiting for the future it must be created. Accomplishments must be recognized, but we must quickly move on to new frontiers in developing even better and more innovative products and technologies. We must be nomads in the sense that we are never satisfied with past successes and accomplishments, but are continuously searching for new areas to explore and develop The business is divided into three major divisions: Memory: The Memory division designs and manufactures integrated circuits for storing digital information. Since the time it developed worlds first 64 GB NAND chip in 1992, Samsung Electronics has maintained its leading position in NAND flash memory. Samsung was the first company to apply 40nm-class process technology in mass producing DRAM. It has also diversified into fast growing segments like mobile devices and game consoles, with its proprietary OneDRAMà ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¢, OneNANDà ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¢ and Flex-OneNANDà ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¢, and distinctive MCP (multi-chip package) solutions. Samsung also pioneered the development of Solid State Drives (SSDs), when it introduced its first 32GB SSD (PATA) in March 2006, followed by a 64GB SSD in June 2007, 128GB SATA II SSD in July 2008 and 256GB MLC-based SSD began in November, 2008. System LSI: The System LSI division designs and manufactures application specific devices, micro components, logic ICs, analog ICs and image sensors. The division caters to 3 major market areas mobile solutions, home media solutions, and ASIC foundry services. Intends to focus on five strategic products areas DDI, CIS, mobile application processor, chip card IC and media player IC. Storage: The Storage division designs and manufactures hard drives. These devices are used in notebook PCs, desktop PCs and consumer electronics. The smaller sized hard disk drives like the 1.8 drive are used in personal media players, cell phones, PDAs, navigators, MP3s and other mobile applications. Also has a line up of high capacity external hard disk drives. The Semiconductor Business has 15 production facilities around the world. It has fabs in Giheung and Hwaseong, Korea (near Seoul), and in Austin, Texas, while the IC assembly plants are in Onyang, Korea and Suzhou, China. Also operates 10 hard-drive manufacturing facilities in Gumi, Korea, which boasts of highest quality production, with automation that enables it to rapidly adapt to future technologies. RD and Patents: Samsung focus on RD is emphasised by the fact that, of the companys 33,500 employees based in Korea, over 30% have work duties dedicated to research and development. The company also has research centers in San Jose (California), Suzhou (China), Yokohama (Japan), Bangalore (India), and Tel Aviv (Israel). The company has invested US$6.3 bn in RD in 2008 which is around 9.5% of its annual sales. Samsung Electronics has registered 3,515 US patents in 2008, a 29.0% increase over 2007. Quality Management Quality is defined as a measure of the level of excellence or standard of a product or service. Quality management is defined as ongoing effort to provide services that meet or exceed customer expectations through a structured, systematic process for creating organizational participation in planning and implementing quality improvements. (, 2009) ( Quality management has three main components: quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement. It is focused not only on product quality, but also the means to achieve it and therefore uses quality assurance and control of processes as well as products to achieve more consistent quality. Quality control: Quality control is defined as a process employed to ensure a certain level of quality in a product or service. This might include any actions that a business might feel necessary to provide to ensure control and verification of certain characteristics of a product or service. The aim of quality control is to ensure that the products, services, or processes provided meet specific requirements and are dependable, satisfactory, and correct. The task assigned to a quality control team in an organization is to identify products or services that do not meet a specific standard of quality and act accordingly. Quality control sometimes is used not only for products, services, and processes, but also for people. These are specially used in service oriented industries. Sometimes quality control is mistaken for quality assurance. The difference is that while Quality control is concerned with the product, Quality assurance is process-oriented. ( ality-control.htm) Quality Assurance: Quality assurance (QA) is the process which involves the testing of products or services to make sure that they meet or exceed quality expectations. It refers to a series of tasks that involve systematic monitoring and evaluation of the various aspects of a project, service, or facility to ensure that standards of quality are consistently met. It generally involves guidelines on the quality of raw materials, assemblies, products and components; services related to production; and management, production and inspection processes. Quality Improvement: Quality improvement is defined by ISO as a part of quality management focused on increasing the ability to fulfil quality requirements. The International Standards Organization is a certifying authority on quality management. The family of ISO 9000 standards represents an international consensus on good quality management practices, consisting of standards and guidelines relating to quality management systems and related supporting standards. The ISO 9000:2000 and ISO 9000:2008 series are based on eight quality management principles. These include Customer focus, Leadership, Involvement of people, Process approach, System approach to management, continual improvement, Factual approach to decision making and Mutually beneficial supplier relationships. ( Quality at Samsung ( Samsung electronics defines its Quality Policy as It is our Quality Policy that we deliver on the basis of an effective quality system the best products and services that exceed our customers requirements and expectations. Samsung Electronics has been the leader in the industry in quality standards since 1993, when the company first received top-level (ISO9001) certification of its plants in Korea. Over the years all domestic and overseas semiconductor sites of Samsung are ISO 9000 certified. The System LSI business unit also acquired the QS 9000 in 1999. Samsung certification milestones include: 1993: ISO9001 for semiconductor plants in Korea 1999: ISO 9002 for semiconductor plants in Austin, Texas; and Suzhou, China 1999: QS9000 for System LSI plant in Korea 2001: TL9000 certification of all semiconductor plants in Korea 2002: QS9000 certification for memory business, assembly and test plants in Korea 2004: ISO/TS16949 certification for Memory System LSI division, assembly and test plants in Korea 2005: ISO/TS16949 certification for semiconductor plants in Suzhou, China 2008 ISO/TS16949 certification for semiconductor plants in Austin, Texas Samsung implements continuous improvement through a closed loop methodology consisting of a selection of critical parameters, evaluation of the measurement system, monitoring of critical parameters, process capability improvement, and reaction plan. The main objective of this is minimizing the variation around the target. Activities: At its facilities, Samsung uses the following techniques for Real Time Monitoring for Special Causes: Interlock System: Samsung continuously monitors products and processes and controls them by automatic interlock systems throughout the manufacturing process In the FAB, it has implemented a three stage protection system: Process Recipe Interlock (Incoming Materials and Recipe Check), Equipment Parameter Interlock and Process Output Interlock In the wafer sort process, wafers are statistically monitored based on various test results and yields before assembly Statistical Process Control (SPC) and Advanced Process Control (APC): Samsung has implemented an advanced SPC system suitable for semiconductor manufacturing processes. The control is used for random trend monitoring. It includes short run, small change detecting, particle, and multivariate SPC modules. The APC system includes real time control and run-to-run control, which is successfully used for controlling deterministic process behaviours For common cause activities which are implemented in company-wide Improvement Projects, Samsung uses the following techniques: FAB Equivalency Copy Intelligently: Implements Samsung Equivalence Test program, which checks the equivalency and non-equivalency of measurement data of output characteristics from Copy Intelligently activities The purpose of this activity is to lead it to standardize the output characteristics between lines or equipment Statistical Post Processing: implements statistical analysis on test results at wafer sort. This not only optimizes test effort but also gives useful information such as potential reliability and yield. With statistical approach, wafers or dies with latent risks are effectively screened and dies are binned according to potential risks Virtual Metrology and Modelling: Implements virtual metrology to construct predictive models that can forecast the electrical/physical parameters of wafers based on data collected from processing equipment. Using this process can eliminate actual measurements from wafers. This combined with the APC leads to a shift from Lot-to-Lot control to Wafer-to-Wafer control Samsung feels that employs are very important in quality management. In order to equip employees with the required skills for maintaining quality, Samsung organises Quality Education Training courses. These courses are targeted towards improvement of employees quality awareness and statistical skills. It offers employees multiple chances to apply for an examination of international Quality Reliability Engineer license. It also encourages its employees to apply for CRE(Certified Reliability Engineer) CQE(Certified Quality Engineer) and several other ASQ Certifications. In the year 2009, 47 engineers obtained CRE licenses and 55 obtained CQE licenses at Samsung. Quality Audit Quality audit is defined as a review in which a designated auditor analyzes and verifies various records and processes relating to a companys quality program. The objective of a quality audit is to determine whether the company under observation is complying with its quality program or whether it needs to make any amendments to its business practices. Sometimes companies also perform a quality audit in order to know whether it is complying with certain quality standards, like those set by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000. Usually, a quality audit is generally conducted by an independent auditor or internal team of auditors who have expertise in the area. Typically in a quality audit, involves the following steps. The designated auditor will first formulates a system audit plan, which usually details the timeline, scope, location of the audit, any written documentation that will need to be reviewed as well as any interviews that will need to be conducted. Then he meets with individuals at the company who are responsible for the companys quality program, examines any applicable records and checks if the companys businesses practices align with its written quality program. If the investigation suggests that the company is not following the written quality program, he would document the information accordingly. The report generally contains a summary of all of the evidence that was reviewed. Audits are of three types. Third Party Audits, which are done by an independent and recognised audit organisation, second party audit, which are conducted by those people who have a high interest in the final outcome of the audit and first party audits, which are done only internally. Quality Audit at Samsung ( (Not rephrased as this is actual policy) SBQA (SAMSUNG Semiconductor Business Quality Award): It is the system under which the audit is conducted for all business units and sites and for each unit of the team/division/line units. The audit is conducted once a year to ensure the provision of information at the quality management level and is mandated to improve all related areas based on the customer satisfaction index of each unit in each development and production area. Corporate Theme Audit: It is the system under which the audit is conducted at the corporate level to diagnose and improve weak areas at the corporate level and to prevent the occurrence of accidents. Supplier Audit: It is the system under which the audit is conducted to ensure improvement by providing new certification, the ratings, and the incentives for suppliers. Audit Information Control Infrastructure: The Company conducts an integrated control of all information generated from the establishment stage of the audit plan until it is closed upon its conclusion. Audit Implementation The following are the steps followed in conducting the audit. First task was to plan the audit. Then this followed by designing a questionnaire. The questionnaire used in my audit is as detailed in Appendix-1. The next step was to perform the audit. It involved taking permission from different people to help in taking part in the audit. This step also involves being familiar with the questions on the questionnaire so that one can be more efficient in collecting the evidence in this regard. I have audited the company by exchanging views some people who are involved in the Samsung quality monitoring process. Also I have used inputs from various employees and customers through a series of questions posed to them about their knowledge of quality at Samsung. The next part after conducting the audit, I summarised all the audit results, so that it gave me more information as to how things were working and also gave me an opportunity to see if I have completed gathering information on all th e questions on the checklist. The most important step was next-evaluating the audit which was conducted. This involved checking if the organization met all the categories which are mentioned in the checklist and how far the quality is maintained with regards to the standards. Then the final task was to make a report based on the quality audit. The report also involved making suggestion that it could be implemented by Somerfield in improving the services and quality of the products. Conclusion The audit conducted on Samsung revealed a lot of insights into the company. During the audit I found that Samsung has a wide variety of products which were sourced from many different countries. I have also found various details about the quality management systems at Samsung, the various quality certifications held by Samsung. I have audited the company by exchanging views some people who are involved in the Samsung quality monitoring process. Also I have used inputs from various employees and customers through a series of questions posed to them about their knowledge of quality at Samsung. Through my audit, I have realised that Samsung follows most of the quality management systems. The areas where i found that Samsung lacked was that the quality policies are not effectively communicated to employees and that the policy for quality is more centralized. I make the following recommendations based on the above interactions. Recommendations An open book policy, especially with its employees and small customers, is necessary to be maintained by Samsung if it has to keep its tag of quality to be upheld. The company needs to allow its consumers to access its quality records so that the consumers are assured of the goods that they are receiving. Policies towards the environment have to be reviewed regularly. This has to be done so that environmental standards are met. Environmental issues are becoming issues of high importance and Samsung needs to be a part of the policies that involve making the world a better place because of its policies. Although Samsung is a part of the environment group, it has to develop more policies towards setting up more stringent rules to be more environments friendly. Staff forums and groups should also concentrate on revealing the results of the audits. This transparency will help to create a better environment to help work well. The staff would be motivated if there are some positive points in the audit and they will be motivated to work better on the not so good points. Major operating groups do not have separate policies. This is disadvantageous as some operating groups need to have special policies that cover the whole range of work that needs to be checked upon. Some groups may not fit into a frame work that the policy of the Samsung has to offer and hence it is essential to make made to order policies. References

Saturday, July 20, 2019

The Lesson of Quinns Ishmael :: Quinn Ishmael Essays

The Lesson of Quinn's Ishmael There are some books that you can just sit back and enjoy, just let the authors words wash over you and, most importantly, you don't have to think. And then there's Daniel Quinn's Ishmael. The novel Ishmael, "an adventure of the mind and spirit," opens with a disillusioned and depressed man in search of a teacher, and not just any teacher. He wants someone to show him what life is all about. And so he finds Ishmael, a meiutic teacher (one who acts as a midwife to his pupils, in bringing ideas to the surface), who turns out to be a large telepathic gorilla of extraordinary intelligence. The largest part of the book consists of their conversations, in which Ishmael discusses how things got to be this way (in terms of human culture, beginning with the agricultural revolution). Ishmael shows the narrator exactly what doesn't work in our society: the reasoning that there is only one right way to live, and that that way is with humans conquering the planet. Daniel Quinn points out that many other cultures, most notably those who have a tribal lifestyle, work, in that they do not destroy their resources, have no need for crime control or other programs, and do not have population problems. He insists that our culture is not based on humans being human, it is based on humans being gods and trying to control the world. Ishmael has a habit of raising questions and ideas. The gorilla Ishmael not only brought out thoughts and questions in the narrator, he brought up a lot of questions and ideas in Coast to Coast 2000. Ishmael took us all aback. Although many of us questioned some of Daniel Quinn's minor points, we all agreed on one of his main points: that there is no one right way to live. The Bushmen of Africa are living in a way that is just as right and works just as well as ours, and possibly even better, as they are capable of living without destroying everything in their paths. These "Leaver" cultures are in no way inferior to ours though we consider them to be uncivilized. In fact, Ishmael says that it is "Taker" civilization itself, the hierarchical structure that locks up food and spreads through the idea that people must live the same way, that is actually inferior.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Comparing Martin Luther King Jr. and Henry David Thoreau :: Compare Contrast Comparison

By acting civil but disobedient you are able to protest things you don't think are fair, non-violently. Henry David Thoreau is one of the most important literary figures of the nineteenth century. Thoreau?s essay 'Civil Disobedience,' which was written as a speech, has been used by many great thinkers such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Mahatma Ghandi as a map to fight against injustice. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was a pastor that headed the Civil Rights movement. He was a gifted speaker and a powerful writer whose philosophy was non-violent but direct action. Dr.King?s strategy was to have sit-ins, boycotts, and marches. Dr. King's 'Letter from Birmingham Jail' was based on the principles of Thoreau's 'Civil Disobedience'. Both Martin Luther King Jr. and Henry David Thoreau are exceptional persuasive writers. Even though both writers are writing on ways to be civil but disobedient, they have opposite ways of convicing you. Dr. King is religious, gentle and apologetic, focusing on whats good for the group; while Thoreau is very aggressive and assertive for his own personal hate against the government. Both Martin Luther King Jr. and Henry David Thoreau have the same ideas, but view them differently. Dr. King wants to ultimately raise awareness and open doors for the better of a group. Thoreau wants more individual rights for people. Dr. King is explaining his view of conscience: I submit that an individual who breaks a law that conscience tells him is   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  unjust, and willingly accepts the penalty by staying in jail to arouse the   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  conscience of the community over its injustice, is in reality expressing the   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  very highest respect for the law (Martin Luther King, p. 521).     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This quote shows Dr. King?s opinion on going to jail. King knows that he was unjustly put into jail. He accepts going to jail even though he was put in jail wrongly. The community then knows of the injustice and should pressure the government. The other thing that happens is King is respecting the law by obeying it. He is a peaceful man and wants justice, but believes in following the rules peacefully to get the job done. Thoreau feels that conscience plays a more personal role. Can there not be a government in which majorities do not virtually decide   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  right and wrong, but conscience?... Must the citizen ever for a moment, or   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  in the least degree, resign his conscience to the legislator? Why has every   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  man a conscience, then. I think that we should be men first, and subject   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  afterward (Henry David Thoreau, p.581). Thoreau is questioning why majorities make the rules.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Flood hazards: impacts and responses for the built environment Essay

Flood Introduction What are some of the major challenges emergency managers will confront during the response phase of this disaster?   Why are these problems?   Why are these issues important to resolve?Finally, how can these problems be overcome by the emergency manager and other related actors or agencies?                   Floods are natural occurrences which are experienced during periods of high-intensity rainfall regularly. The changes in climatic patterns changes the intensity of rain and this could lead to future occurrences of floods. The emergency managers faces a lot of problems in trying to deal with this problem during the response phase. Some of the problems include communication system, geographical position, experience in handling the problem, lack of resources to deal with the emerging problem which in this case is floods among many more(Moore & Barnes, 2004).                   Communication being a very important aspect in any activity of a particular group, its importance should not be underestimated. Lack of proper communication systems during the response stage in floods would lead to poor service delivery to the affected people. The geographical position of an area would determine how fast or slow the response team arrives at the scene to help. People staying in areas that can be easily accessed by the team are always rescued easily by the team. Selecting the best team for any emergency case is always a major problem faced. Improper selection leads to poor service hence the need to always choose the best team.                   The aforementioned problems can be overcome by incorporating qualified personnel into the response team. In areas with accessibility problems, the best means available should always be sought. Good communication systems is also very important because the response team works together and it’s only through proper communication that they will render the best services. Who will be the most critical actors to arrive initially at the scene of the incident? Why are these actors so crucial? What kind of equipment and training should they possess?                   The most important people to first arrive at the flood scene should be the Red Cross members, the fire fighters, health and mental volunteers. These people form the rescue teams. They help in evacuating the people from the flood invested area.                   There exists two types of floods; those that occur gradually and the flash floods which may occur with little or no warning. The rescuers therefore undergo training to help curb all the two types. The most important skill one needs to know is the first aid skill and secondly how to operate a radio. Some however may also have the Swiftwater Training certificate. The people should be trained on hydrology which involves learning how water behaves when it’s moving quickly through a confined area. This helps them know to read the surface hence knowing the location of hidden materials like vehicle, concrete posts among others.                   Defensive swimming is also another skill learned by the rescuers. This helps in keeping themselves safe. Working as a team is also another highly regarded skill that a person should possess. Working as teams helps the team achieve their objectives very first.                   The equipment carried during the rescue process includes megaphones and whistles which assist in communications, ropes that would be used in pulling people to safety places and extra life jackets that would help keep them warm. In addition, they also have lanterns and flares for staying in touch.                   What are some of the major and pressing considerations to consider when dealing with this disaster scenario? What are some hazards that will need to be assessed and overcome? Who will need to be warned or evacuated? Will transportation and shelter arrangements need to be made?                   There are major considerations that should be considered when dealing with floods. The considerations include studying the flood frequency, the length of inundation and the effects of flood and role of mitigation in controlling the flood (Strahler, 1973).                   In controlling floods, there are hazards which needs to be assessed. Gathering the hydrologic data directly from the nearby rivers is always very essential even though it might be time consuming. When data have been collected for quite a long time through stream gauging, then models can be used in coming up with statistical frequency of any given flood events. The importance of hazard assessments that are found based on the remote the remotely available sensing data, field observations and damage reports is that they can be used in instances when quantitative data is not available.                   As mentioned earlier, the importance of determining statistical frequency is that it’s helpful in determining their probability. In areas without records for a long period of time, the assessments are always very difficult.                   The people that stays near rivers or in areas that are prone to floods needs to be warned or evacuated depending on the situation of the flood. Those that stay in areas that are highly prone to floods should be evacuated. When distances that should be travelled are long, then transportation and shelter provisions ought to be made available to the affected people.                   List the steps that would need to be taken starting with the most pressing needs down to the final details. How will emergency medical care be distributed? Will mass triage need to be established? Will the affected area need to be cordoned off?                   The steps taken in helping solve or reduce floods and its effects include what is commonly known as the 3M approach. It involves Measuring Mapping (Schumann, 2011) Modelling                   Failing to do what should be done on time has always thwarted the efforts of several governments, or organizations in coming up with a long lasting effect concerning floods. Complete protection from floods might however be hard but under good preparations, flood evasion is easy. The above listed points starts with planning. Prolonged warnings always makes people to be ready and hence helps them keep their belongings safe (Moore, 2004).                   Emergency medical care to people affected with floods is very important and so is its distribution. The medical care equipment can be distributed through the use of helicopters in areas where other means of transportation is impossible. In instances where the flood is not extreme, then the drugs are distributed by the medical officers or the volunteers.                   Mass triage needs to be established in areas where the flooding effects were extreme and a lot of people are affected. Areas under flood are likely to pose a higher threat for individuals to contract water borne diseases and hence the need for mass triage. Cordoning off an area might also be necessary so as to differentiate the flood infested areas from those that are not. Cordoned off areas are not allowed to be reached by others unless the flood subsidises. Why is emergency management so important during this phase? Could an unorganized response actually lead to more confusion and chaos? How can resources and personnel be allocated efficiently with a central command post?                   Emergency management is important in each and every stage in disaster management. However, its importance is very vital during this stage because of the following reasons. Emergency management helps overcoming the emergencies because there is always a plan for it. With a good plan in place, all is possible. Secondly, emergency management helps in knowing the best way to deal with any problem should it arise. Having a survival kit is also another way through which emergency management helps an individual during occurrences like the flood. Inside the kit there are materials that are necessary in overcoming the emergency (Haddow, Bullock & Coppola, 2008).                   Confusion and chaos arises in situations where after an emergency, there is unorganized response from the management team. This always comes as a result of lack of emergency management tips.                   Having a central command post during emergencies like floods is very healthy in tackling the problem at hand efficiently. The stakeholders involved in helping solve the emergency for example floods, always assemble in the command post and work cooperatively to successfully mitigate the emergency through implementing a single incident action plan. A unified command post helps in the following ways Allows for specialist input whereby only specialised individuals are allowed to work on what they can handle It authorises each stakeholder to have input about how they believe the emergency will be managed.                   Having the right command post therefore ensures that only qualified personnel are assigned certain tasks. This is because they are the ones with authorities on that field hence they can always deliver their best. What are the initial steps that must be taken before recovery operations can take place? Why is disaster recovery so important? Should we strive to make the area better than I t was before the incident?                   Recovery involves rebuilding the whole community so that the affected individuals, governments and other body can now work on their own as they resume normalcy as well as prevent them from future hazards (Clements, 2009).                   The following should be done before recovery operations can take place. The officials should get clearance to enter the site. The extent of the damage should also be looked at before starting the recovery process. Those planning to undertake the recovery process should also get professional advice. Command centre for the recovery effort should also be sought before embarking on the recovery process. Another important aspect that should be looked before starting the recovery process is establishing security procedures for the recovery site. Lastly, deciding how the salvaged materials will be treated should also be looked before commencing the recovery process.                   Recovering from the trauma experienced during the floods might be quite challenging for many people. Therefore proper recovery steps must be undertaken to ensure people heal appropriately. Some of the recovery efforts include; giving medical aid, providing relief which comprises of food, water etc., clearing up the area, rebuilding damaged structures, reopening schools, businesses and all those places that were affected. The disaster recovery is so important in that it attempts to bring the affected people back to normalcy. People recovering from disasters always tend to have negative views so through the use of recovery process, they are made to appreciate life once more.                   The recovery team should endeavour to make the area a better place than it was. Leaving an area in the same or worse state than it was before makes people have bad feelings about such cases. Hence, the need for making an area a better place than it was before.                   How can the public or non-profit organizations assist in recovery operations? Should volunteers be sought and utilized? How could public donations be collected? How could debris be recovered and removed?                   The public and the non-profit organisations have been used in recovery operations. The non-profit organizations serves as health care providers, emergency shelter operations, and search and rescue team. Furthermore, they offer psychological training, as well as emergency communications. The public may also be used in assisting the affected group through being with them together. This always makes such people feel appreciated. They always feel that people are together with them even in their predicaments. The role of the public and non-profit organizations like churches cannot be underestimated.                   So as to make the recovery process a success, volunteers should be utilised. Volunteers are people who are willing to offer certain assistance at no pay. These volunteers might have dealt with similar cases before and are therefore more suited to serve and help the affected people.                   Those in the team should however strive to know the real volunteers. Some may volunteer with sinister motives. These people always lower or reduce the rate at which recovery process is achieved. Such people always make use of the vulnerable condition of the affected people for their own selfish gain. This vice however should be condemned.                   Public donations are very helpful in helping people recover from floods and its effects. People affected by floods needs food, quick medical attention and other basic necessities. The donations from the public if not collected using the right channels, might end up not helping in the intended purpose. Special bodies should always be put in place to man the public donations.                   Prompt cleaning of debris remains after the floods prevents odors, diseases. Contamination from run offs and many more. The following are some of the methods that are used to remove debris. The vegetation should be disposed of correctly. They should be handled in a manner that prevents draining into streams, ditches and other surface water sources (Lamond, 2012).                   Structures that are destroyed should be managed by the property owner and contractors if the floods affected construction sites. Sediments should also be discarded as solid waste.                   Whenever sewage is encountered during the debris disposal process that waste does not necessarily need to be separated. It should be disposed at a landfill mixed with other debris from the flood.                   Is the management of public relations crucial during the recovery process? How could information be relayed to the public to assure them that everything that needs to be done is being done? How could some of the survivor’s mental health have been affected by the disaster? Should crisis counselors be sought to deal with the survivors and victims of the disaster?                   The management of public relations is very important during the recovery process.                   Good public relations enhances good recovery. When there is poor public relations, there is less that canbe done to quicken the recovery process. Consoling affected people is of utmost importance during the recovery period. The people who have been affected by floods needs to be always encouraged that all is well and that help is always underway.                   Leaving people in conditions whereby they are not informed promptly, panic always arises. The best way to inform the public that all is well is by using leaders who they trust. Information which comes from a more authoritative person or a person who is experienced in a certain field holds more waters than information being rumored.                   The mental health of flood survivors may at times be affected. This is mainly in instances where the floods were so much and it caused serious destructions. The survivors might have seen some of their family members drown as a result of the floods. Sometimes, they themselves might have been rescued from death narrowly.                   For such people to heal completely, they need the services of a crisis counsellor for them to recover completely. The crisis counsellors are trained in dealing with problems like these and so they help the affected in overcoming the challenges they face.                   How important is it to promote a culture of vulnerability reduction to prevent disasters from occurringin the first place or at least mitigating their consequences if they do occur?                   Vulnerability is a set of conditions which results from physical, economic, environmental and social factors that increases a person’s susceptibility to the effects of the hazards.                   Promoting the culture of vulnerability helps in preventing disasters as well as mitigating their effects. This is due to the fact that the culture of vulnerability makes people aware of the problems they are facing. When one is aware of whatever he or she is undergoing, then he or she becomes prepared for anything. Being prepared means that solutions to problems can always be found before it’s too late.                   Apart from making people aware, people are also have strong coping capacity. They are always aware and so they can cope as required hence helps in preventing the disaster.                   How can technology be harnessed to smooth the recovery process? What are some tools available to emergency managers for recovery operations? Could the lessons learned from this disaster response and recovery be used in the future to better help communities respond to and deal with a disaster? What are some new and possibly unexpected threats that could arise in the future?Technology can be used to create tools that will lead to faster healings. The recovery process for it to be successful, technology must be used well. With the appropriate technology in place, transportation of medicine, staffs and other essentials that are needed will be availed easily.                   Tools available for use by emergency managers during the recovery process includes weather sensor and satellite, fibre optics, phones video, medical equipment. The lessons learnt from this disaster response are very helpful in dealing with future occurrences. The response when dealing with flood can be used when dealing with other types of floods. Some of the possible threats that are likely to occur during dealing with floods is the network problem. When floods occur, network connection is always tampered with. This happens to be the unexpected threats in when dealing with floods. Network unavailability hinders smooth communication. References Clements, B. (2009). Disasters and Public Health: planning and response. Amsterdam: Butterworth- Heinemann/Elsevier Haddow, G. D., B ullock, J. A., &Coppla, D. P. (2008). Introduction to Emergency Management (3rded.). Amsterdam: Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann. Lamond, J. (2012). Flood hazards: impacts and responses for the built environment. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Moore, R.,&Barnes,J. (2004).Faces from the flood: Hurricane Floyd remembered. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Rao, S. R. (2006). Resource recovery and recycling from metallurgical wastes. Amsterdam: Elsevier Schumann, A. (2011). Flood risk assessment and management how to specify hydrological loads, their consequences and uncertainties. Berlin. Springer. Strahler, A. N. (1973). Environmental Science: Interaction between Natural Systems and Man. California: Hamilton Publishing Company. Wisner, B., Gaillard, J. C., &Kelman, I. (2012). The Routledge handbook of hazards and disaster risk reduction. London: Routledge. Source document